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Table 1 Description of explanatory variables

From: Trends and socioeconomic factors in smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese people: evidence from the 2008–2018 National Health Service Surveys in Jiangsu Province

  Description Indicator/survey questions
Dependent variable
 Smoking 0 = No Question: What is your current smoking status?
1 = Yes
 Smoking quantity 0 = No smoking According to the smoking index (smoking index = number of cigarettes per day * number of years of smoking), the smoking amount is divided into light, moderate and heavy.
1 = Low (light smoking)
2 = Moderate
3 = High (heavy smoking)
 Drinking 0 = No Question: Did you drink in the past six months?
1 = Yes
 Drinking volume 0 = No drinking Judging whether to drink too much according to the 2007 standard of China chronic disease and its risk factors monitoring report.
1 = Non-excessive drinking
2 = Excessive drinking
 Smoking and drinking 0 = No smoking or no drinking
1 = Both smoking and drinking
We extended a new dependent variable, both smoking and drinking, according to whether to smoke and whether to drink.
Independent variable
 Demographic factor
  Age, years 1 = 15–45 Question: Year of birth.
2 = 46–59
3 = ≥60
  Sex 0 = Male Question: What is your gender?
1 = Female
  Number of siblings 1 = ≤2 Question: What is your household registration number?
2 = 3 or 4
3 = ≥5
  Marital status 1 = Unmarried Question: What is your present marital status?
2 = Married
3 = Divorced/widowed/other
  Place of residence 0 = Urban Question: Where do you live? Urban or rural areas?
1 = Rural
  Social health insurance 0 = No Question: Do you participate in social medical insurance?
1 = Yes
Socioeconomic status
 Income level 1 = Very low(≤12,453) Yearly household income divided by the number of household members; first household member with a weight of 1, all following household members with a weight of 0.5.
2 = Low(12,453 ~ 20,000)
3 = Middle(20,000 ~ 29,284)
4 = High(29,284 ~ 43,773)
5 = Very high(≥43,773)
 Education 1 = Primary school Question: What’s the highest level of education in last waves?
2 = Junior school
3 = High school
4 = University or higher
 Employment status 1 = Employed Question: What is your present employment situation?
2 = Retired
3 = Unemployed
 Type of occupation 1 = Unskilled labor Question:What is your occupation type?
2 = Skilled labor
3 = Other or unemployed
 Poor or low-security household 0 = No Question: Is your family listed as a local poor or low-income family?
1 = Yes
Health-related factor
 Chronic disease 0 = No Question: Have you had a chronic disease diagnosed by your doctor?
1 = Yes
 Multiple chronic diseases 0 = No “Yes” is defined as having two or more chronic diseases, and “no” is defined as not suffering from chronic diseases.
1 = Yes
 EQ-5D 0 = Complete health “Complete health” is defined as EQ-5D score equal to one point, while “incomplete health” is defined as EQ-5D score less than one point.
1 = Incomplete health
 Health status (VAS, self-reported) 1 = Poor (0–40) Health status on a 20 cm vertical scale with end points of 0 and 100 was asked on the day of the interview.
2 = Moderate (41–60)
3 = Good (41–80)
0 = Excellent (81–100)
 Physical examination 0 = No Question: have you had a physical examination in the past 12 months? (excluding examination due to illness)
1 = Yes
 Physical exercise (no. times per week) 1 = 0 Question: on average, how many times a week do you exercise in the past 1 month?
2 = 1 or 2
3 = 3–5
4 = ≥6
 Wave 1 = 2008  
2 = 2013
3 = 2018
  1. Abbreviations: EQ-5D European Quality of Life Scale – 5 Dimensions, VAS Visual Analog Scale