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Table 4 Results of regression analysis of drinking rate and quantity in Jiangsu province from 2008 to 2018

From: Trends and socioeconomic factors in smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese people: evidence from the 2008–2018 National Health Service Surveys in Jiangsu Province

Variable Drinking Non-excessive drinking Excessive drinking
OR 95% CI RRR 95%CI RRR 95%CI
Demographic factor
 Age, years (ref: 15–45)
  46–59 1.70*** (1.54,1.88) 1.73*** (1.56,1.93) 1.55*** (1.28,1.87)
   ≥ 60 1.41*** (1.23,1.61) 1.53*** (1.33,1.76) 0.87 (0.66,1.15)
 Sex (ref: male)
  Female 0.05*** (0.04,0.05) 0.05*** (0.05,0.06) 0.01*** (0.01,0.02)
 Number of siblings (ref: 1 or 2)
  3 or 4 0.96 (0.88,1.06) 0.98 (0.89,1.08) 0.86 (0.71,1.03)
   ≥ 5 0.94 (0.85,1.03) 0.95 (0.85,1.05) 0.86 (0.70,1.06)
 Marital status (ref: unmarried)
  Married 3.26*** (2.78,3.82) 3.20*** (2.70,3.74) 3.49*** (2.45,4.98)
  Divorced/widowed/other 2.81*** (2.26,3.49) 2.83*** (2.25,3.56) 2.39** (1.43,3.99)
 Place of residence (ref: urban)
  Rural 1.02 (0.94,1.12) 1 (0.92,1.10) 1.15 (0.95,1.38)
 Social health insurance (ref: no)
  Yes 0.92 (0.75,1.14) 0.93 (0.74,1.17) 0.9 (0.60,1.35)
Socioeconomic status
 Income (ref: very low)
  Low 1.20*** (1.07,1.36) 1.18** (1.04,1.34) 1.32** (1.04,1.68)
  Middle 1.31*** (1.16,1.49) 1.30*** (1.14,1.48) 1.42*** (1.11,1.82)
  High 1.36*** (1.19,1.54) 1.33*** (1.16,1.52) 1.51*** (1.16,1.96)
  Very high 1.39*** (1.21,1.60) 1.32*** (1.14,1.53) 1.94*** (1.45,2.60)
 Education (ref: primary school)
  Junior school 0.94 (0.85,1.03) 0.96 (0.86,1.06) 0.82** (0.67,1.00)
  High school 0.75*** (0.67,0.85) 0.77*** (0.68,0.87) 0.67*** (0.53,0.86)
  University or higher 0.58*** (0.50,0.69) 0.63*** (0.54,0.75) 0.31*** (0.26,0.53)
 Employment status (ref: employed)
  Retired 0.64*** (0.56,0.74) 0.67*** (0.57,0.76) 0.54*** (0.39,0.75)
  Unemployed 0.73*** (0.60,0.89) 0.77** (0.63,0.96) 0.57*** (0.38,0.84)
 Type of occupation (ref: unskilled labor)
  Skilled labor 0.93 (0.84,1.03) 0.95 (0.86,1.06) 0.81** (0.66,0.99)
  Unemployed or other 0.88 (0.74,1.06) 0.84* (0.69,1.02) 1.02 (0.74,1.40)
 Poor or low-security household (ref: no)
  Yes 0.88 (0.71,1.08) 0.85 (0.69,1.06) 1.03 (0.67,1.58)
Health-related factor
 Chronic disease (ref: no)
  Yes 1.01 (0.94,1.12) 0.99 (0.90,1.08) 1.18* (0.98,1.41)
 Multiple chronic diseases (ref: no)
  Yes 0.73*** (0.63,0.85) 0.76*** (0.65,0.90) 0.49*** (0.33,0.73)
 EQ-5D (ref: complete health)
  Incomplete health 1.05 (0.94,1.18) 1.08 (0.96,1.21) 0.83 (0.63,1.09)
 Health status (ref: excellent)
  Poor (0–40) 0.35*** (0.24,0.52) 0.39*** (0.26,0.58) 0.09** (0.01,0.66)
  Moderate (41–60) 0.63*** (0.54,0.74) 0.62*** (0.53,0.72) 0.78+ (0.56,1.09)
  Good (41–80) 0.92** (0.85,0.99) 0.93 (0.86,1.02) 0.85** (0.72,1.00)
 Physical examination (ref: no)
  Yes 1.05 (0.97,1.13) 1.05 (0.97,1.13) 1.06 (0.90,1.24)
 Physical exercise, no. of times per week (ref: ≥6)
  0 1.10 * (0.99,1.22) 1.08 (0.97,1.20) 1.25* (0.99,1.57)
  1 or 2 1.17* (1.00,1.36) 1.19** (1.02,1.40) 1 (0.69,1.45)
  3–5 0.91 (0.78,1.05) 0.9 (0.77,1.04) 1 (0.72,1.39)
Wave (ref: 2008)
  2013 2.11*** (1.89,2.36) 2.29*** (2.03,2.59) 1.63*** (1.33,1.99)
  2018 3.29*** (2.94,3.68) 4.13*** (3.66,4.67) 0.83 (0.65,1.05)