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Table 5 Results of regression analysis of “both smoking and drinking” in Jiangsu province from 2008 to 2018

From: Trends and socioeconomic factors in smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese people: evidence from the 2008–2018 National Health Service Surveys in Jiangsu Province

Variables smoking and drinking
OR 95% CI
Demographic factor
 Age, years (ref: 15–45)
  46–59 1.49*** (1.33,1.67)
   ≥ 60 1.17* (0.005, 0.01)
 Sex (ref: male)
  female 0.01*** (0.01,0.02)
 Number of siblings (ref: 1 or 2)
  3 or 4 1.03 (0.92,1.15)
   ≥ 5 1.06 (0.94,1.18)
 Marital status (ref: unmarried)
  Married 3.07*** (2.51,3.76)
  Divorced/widowed/other 2.87*** (2.19,3.77)
 Place of residence (ref: urban)
  Rural 0.82*** (0.74,0.91)
 Social health insurance (ref: no)
  Yes 0.81 (0.64,1.03)
Socioeconomic status
 Income (ref: very low)
  Low 1.09 (0.95,1.25)
  Middle 1.14 (0.99,1.32)
  High 1.11 (0.96,1.29)
  Very high 1.28** (1.08,1.51)
 Education (ref: primary school)
  Junior school 0.89* (0.79,0.99)
  High school 0.70*** (0.61,0.80)
  University or higher 0.39*** (0.32,0.47)
 Employment status (ref: employed)
  Retired 0.64*** (0.54,0.76)
  Unemployed 0.61*** (0.48,0.78)
 Type of occupation (ref: unskilled labor)
  Skilled labor 0.89 (0.79,1.01)
  Unemployed or other 1.01 (0.82,1.23)
 Poor or low-security household (ref: no)
  Yes 1.12 (0.89,1.42)
Health-related factor
 Chronic disease (ref: no)
  Yes 0.96 (0.86,1.07)
 Multiple chronic diseases (ref: no)
  Yes 0.74** (0.62,0.90)
 EQ-5D (ref: complete health)
  Incomplete health 0.88 (0.77,1.01)
 Health status (ref: excellent)
  Poor (0–40) 0.34*** (0.20,0.58)
  Moderate (41–60) 0.73** (0.61,0.88)
  Good (41–80) 0.98 (0.89,1.07)
 physical examination (ref: no)
  Yes 0.94 (0.86,1.03)
 Physical exercise, no. of times per week (ref: ≥6)
  0 1.25*** (1.11,1.41)
  1 or 2 1.23** (1.02,1.48)
  3–5 0.83* (0.70,0.99)
Wave (Ref: 2008)
  2013 1.78*** (1.56, 2.03)
  2018 2.17*** (1.90, 2.47)