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Table 1 Descriptive statistics from the baseline and follow-up surveys of a 12-week fresh food prescription program in Guelph, Ontario, Canada in 2019–2020

From: “I was eating more fruits and veggies than I have in years”: a mixed methods evaluation of a fresh food prescription intervention

Characteristic % (n) or mean (95% confidence interval), baseline survey % (n) or mean (95% confidence interval), follow-up survey p-valuea for significance test between baseline and follow-up surveys, if applicable
Total Participants 60 36 N/A
Referring CHC
 Downtown Guelph CHC 40% (24) 57% (21) N/A
 Shelldale CHC 60% (36) 43% (16) N/A
Age Group (years)
 20 to 34 17% (10) 22% (8) N/A
 35 to 49 32% (19) 30% (11) N/A
 50 to 64 38% (23) 36% (13) N/A
 65+ 10% (6) 11% (4) N/A
 Prefer not to answer 3% (2) 0 N/A
Genderb
 Female 77% (46) 71% (25) N/A
 Male 22% (13) 29% (10) N/A
 Prefer not to identify 2% (1) 3% (1) N/A
Household Size
 One 27% (16) 26% (9) N/A
 Two 32% (19) 43% (15) N/A
 Three 8% (5) 3% (1) N/A
 Four 12% (7) 14% (5) N/A
 Five or more 22% (13) 17% (6) N/A
Number of Children in Household
 Zero 53% (32) 58% (21) N/A
 One 13% (8) 11% (4) N/A
 Two 13% (8) 11% (4) N/A
 Three 15% (9) 8% (3) N/A
 Four or more 5% (3) 11% (4) N/A
Employment Status
 Full-time employed 7% (4) 3% (1) N/A
 Part-time employed 15% (9) 8% (3) N/A
 Unable to work because of sickness or disability 38% (23) 39% (14) N/A
 Unemployed 13% (8) 31% (11) N/A
 Retired 15% (9) 8% (3) N/A
 Volunteering 5% (3) 6% (2) N/A
 Looking after family 2% (1) 3% (1) N/A
 Student 3% (2) 3% (1) N/A
 Prefer not to answer 2% (1) 0 N/A
Receiving Ontario Disability Support Program
 Yes 52% (31) 64% (23) N/A
 No 48% (29) 36% (13) N/A
Estimated Household Annual Income
 $0 - $9999 15% (9) N/A N/A
 $10,000 - $19,999 40% (24) N/A N/A
 $20,000 - $29,000 15% (9) N/A N/A
 $30,000 - $39,000 5% (3) N/A N/A
 $40,000 - $49,000 3% (2) N/A N/A
 $50,000+ 3% (2) N/A N/A
 Do not know / prefer not to answer 18% (11) N/A N/A
Food Security Scores
 Mean adult food security score 4.1 (3.3–4.9) 2.5 (1.6–3.3) < 0.001
 Mean child food security score 1.9 (0.9–2.9) 0.93 (0.1–0.9) 0.01
Food Security Status
 Food secure 3% (2) 25% (9) N/A
 Marginally food insecure 10% (6) 19% (7) N/A
 Moderately food insecure 55% (33) 36% (13) N/A
 Severely food insecure 32% (19) 17% (6) N/A
 Prefer not to answer 0 3% (1) N/A
Health outcomes
 Depression 63% (38) 58% (21) N/A
 Anxiety 57% (34) 50% (18) N/A
 Arthritis 47% (28) 36% (13) N/A
 Iron deficiency anemia 37% (22) 33% (12) N/A
 Hypertension 35% (21) 33% (12) N/A
 Vit D deficiency 31% (19) 22% (8) N/A
 Vit B12 deficiency 28% (17) 19% (7) N/A
 Migraines 28% (17) 42% (15) N/A
 High cholesterol, triglycerides, or lipids 25% (15) 22% (7) N/A
 Diabetes 25% (15) 25% (9) N/A
  Type 1 2% (1) 3% (1)  
  Type 2 13% (8) 6% (2)  
  Unsure of Type 10% (6) 17% (6)  
 Asthma 22% (13) 25% (9) N/A
 Stress fracture 20% (12) 8% (3) N/A
 Hypothyroidism 18% (11) 6% (2) N/A
 Concussions or head injuries 17% (10) 25% (9) N/A
Self-reported physical health
 Mean physical health score 2.3 (1.8–2.8) 2.8 (2.4–3.2) 0.13
 Poor 27% (16) 36% (13) N/A
 Unsatisfactory 15% (9) 17% (6) N/A
 Fair 28% (17) 25% (9) N/A
 Good 27% (16) 19% (7) N/A
 Excellent 3% (2) 0 N/A
 Prefer not to answer 0 2% (1) N/A
Self-reported mental health
 Mean mental health score 2.4 (1.9–2.8) 2.3 (1.8–2.7) 0.67
 Poor 22% (13) 25% (9) N/A
 Unsatisfactory 15% (9) 19% (7) N/A
 Fair 30% (18) 22% (8) N/A
 Good 23% (14) 22% (8) N/A
 Excellent 7% (4) 11% (4) N/A
 Prefer not to answer 3% (2) 0 N/A
Self-reported social relationships
 Mean social relationships score 1.7 (1.2–2.2) 1.9 (1.5–2.4) 0.41
 Poor 17% (10) 14% (5) N/A
 Unsatisfactory 8% (5) 8% (3) N/A
 Fair 17% (10) 31% (11) N/A
 Good 42% (25) 39% (14) N/A
 Excellent 17% (10) 6% (2) N/A
 Prefer not to answer 0 3% (1) N/A
Mean Weekly Frequency of Consumption of Fruits and Vegetablesc
 Juice 2.4 (0.98–3.8) 2.8 (1.2–4.4) 0.68
 Fruit 4.7 (2.3–7.0) 8.5 (5.6–11.5) 0.05
 Dark green vegetables 5.5 (3.1–7.9) 5.2 (3.7–6.8) 0.82
 Orange vegetables 3.1 (0.74–5.5) 4.2 (2.9–5.6) 0.46
 Potatoes 3.2 (1.2–5.2) 2.7 (1.9–3.6) 0.55
 Other vegetables 3.5 (2.2–4.7) 5.2 (3.6–6.9) 0.02
  1. ap-values reflect pairwise t-test for differences in means between baseline and follow up
  2. bResponses to gender were open ended (not selected from a checklist)
  3. cDark green vegetables include broccoli, green beans, peas, green peppers, and dark leafy greens like romaine lettuce and spinach. Orange vegetables include carrots, orange bell peppers, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and squash. Other vegetables include cucumber, celery, corn, cabbage, and vegetable juice