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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of the prevalence of breast self-examination practice in Africa

From: Breast self-examination practice among women in Africa: a systematic review and Meta-analysis

Subgroup Number of studies Prevalence BSE Practice (95% CI) Heterogeneity
I2 p-value
Sub region West Africa 25 58.87(48.06, 69.27) 99.05 <  0.001
East Africa 22 32.18 (23.74, 41.24) 98.61 <  0.001
North Africa 5 32.63(12.09, 57.46) 99.02 <  0.001
Central Africa 3 44.87(32.50, 57.57)
South Africa 1 5.33 (2.73,10.17)
Study participant Health professional 10 63.33(48.62, 76.88) 98.56 <  0.001
Non health professionals 46 39.81(31.85, 48.06) 99.12 <  0.001
Study setting Institutional based 43 48.39(39.39,57.44) 99.16 <  0.001
Community based 13 29.95(21.53, 39.11) 97.85 < 0.001
Publication Period 2000–2005 3 50.50(8.05, 92.48)
2006–2010 8 61.42(45.28, 76.39) 98.28 <  0.001
2011–2015 22 38.58(27.39, 50.42) 98.88 <  0.001
2016–2020 23 42.34 (30.75, 54.37) 99.29 <  0.001
Risk of bias Low 41 43.20(34.53, 52.08) 99.19 <  0.001
Moderate 11 43.26 (26.29, 61.07) 98.95 <  0.001
High 4 54.30 (42.62,65.75) 92.04 <  0.001
Place of residence Urban 40 48.55(39.20,57.95) 99.18 <  0.001
Rural 12 34.25(23.60, 45.75) 98.36 <  0.001
Mixed 4 28.78(15.04, 44.86) 97.15 <  0.001
Total   56 44.0% (36.63, 51.50) 99.10 <  0.001