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Table 2 The measurement of social participation and perceived helpfulness among Chinese adults aged 45 years and above by urban-rural setting a

From: Socio-economic inequalities in the chronic diseases management among Chinese adults aged 45 years and above: a cross sectional study

Variable Rural Urban Total
  n % n % nb %b
Social participation
 Respondent who reported taking the following activities last month
  Any of the 8 following activities 5477 49.1 4520 55.5 9997 51.8
   (1) Interacted with friends 4196 37.6 2923 35.9 7119 36.9
   (2) Played Ma-jiang, chess and cards or went to community club 1951 17.5 1902 23.6 3853 20.0
   (3) Provided help to family, friends, or neighbors who did not live with you and who did not pay you for help 1087 9.7 837 10.3 1924 10.0
   (4) A sport, social, or other kind of club 220 2.0 1246 15.3 1466 7.6
   (5) A community-related organization 112 1.0 280 3.4 392 2.0
   (6) Done voluntary or charity work 58 0.5 133 1.6 191 1.0
   (7) Cared for a sick or disabled adult who did not live with you and who did not pay you for help 133 1.2 150 1.8 283 1.5
   (8) An educational or training course 31 0.3 90 1.1 121 0.6
Perceived helpfulness
 Yes 7834 70.3 5499 67.5 13,333 69.1
 No 3314 29.7 2643 32.5 5958 30.9
  1. a There were 6.7 and 4.5% subjects missing in measuring the constructs of social participation and perceived helpfulness, respectively. After dropping subjects with missing data, 19,291 subjects were included in this analysis. Among them, total number of rural and urban subjects was 11,149 and 8142, respectively
  2. b The number (n) in the column of “Total” means the total number of respondents with the “yes” response to corresponding question, while the percentage (%) in the column of “Total” means the proportion of them to the total sample size