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Table 2 Background characteristics of respondents and distribution of anemia across explanatory variables: Evidence from DHSs of 19 sub-Saharan African countries

From: Prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among married women in 19 sub-Saharan African countries

Variables Frequency (Weighted %) Anemia Chi-square, P-value
No, Frequency (Weighted %) Yes, Frequency (Weighted %)
Age in years     χ2 = 108.13, p < 0.001
 15–19 10,811 (7.69) 2992 (52.81) 2674 (47.19)  
 20–24 29,487 (19.80) 9183 (58.70) 6462 (41.30)  
 25–29 35,814 (20.45) 11,310 (59.35) 7746 (40.65)  
 30–34 31,562 (18.09) 10,079 (60.22) 6658 (39.78)  
 35–39 26,553 (13.99) 8301 (58.74) 5831 (41.26)  
 40–44 18,935 (11.39) 5917 (58.55) 4189 (41.45)  
 45–49 14,431 (8.60) 4639 (60.35) 3048 (39.65)  
Women’s educational level     χ2 = 1400, p < 0.001
 No formal education 71,213 (82.01) 19,126 (51.57) 17,959 (48.43)  
 Primary school 55,720 (11.12) 18,580 (64.08) 10,414 (35.92)  
 Secondary school 35,524 (6.06) 12,764 (63.31) 7398 (36.69)  
 Higher 5136 (0.8) 1951 (69.98) 837 (30.02)  
Husband's educational level     χ2 = 1500, p < 0.001
 No formal education 63,323 (79.43) 16,577 (50.58) 16,200 (49.42)  
 Primary school 46,825 (12.03) 15,730 (64.81) 8542 (35.19)  
 Secondary school 45,673 (7.09) 15,949 (62.39) 9616 (37.61)  
 Higher 11,629 (1.45) 4128 (65.35) 2189 (34.65)  
Women's occupation     χ2 = 122.76, p < 0.001
 Not working 42,230 (18.49) 14,602 (57.90) 10,616 (42.10)  
 Professional or technical or managerial 5770 (1.12) 1917 (66.45) 968 (33.55)  
 Agricultural 66,301 (49.72) 19,418 (58.72) 13,653 (41.28)  
 Manual 11,985 (6.98) 3560 (63.04) 2087 (36.96)  
 Others 41,229 (23.68) 12,906 (58.23) 9256 (41.77)  
Wealth index     χ2 = 567.88, p < 0.001
 Poorest 37,255 (18.68) 11,192 (54.54) 9330 (45.46)  
 Poor 34,176 (20.48) 10,183 (56.46) 7852 (43.54)  
 Middle 32,652 (20.63) 9874 (57.99) 7152 (42.01)  
 Rich 31,465 (20.61) 10,119 (60.76) 6536 (39.24)  
 Richest 32,045 (19.59) 11,053 (65.83) 5738 (34.17)  
Place of residence     χ2 = 49.70, p < 0.001
 Urban 51,703 (21.18) 16,896 (60.60) 10,984 (39.40)  
 Rural 115,890 (78.82) 35,525 (58.10) 25,624 (41.90)  
Reading of newspaper     χ2 = 22.99,, p < 0.001
 No 12,602 (94.09) 3109 (50.23) 3081 (49.77)  
 Yes 790 (5.91) 239 (62.89) 141 (37.11)  
Listening to radio     χ2 = 16.33,, p < 0.001
 No 3826 (30.04) 887 (47.03) 999 (52.97)  
 Yes 9566 (69.96) 2461 (52.54) 2223 (47.46)  
Watching television     χ2 = 23.31,, p < 0.001
 No 9773 (73.18) 2365 (49.16) 2446 (50.84)  
 Yes 3619 (26.82) 983 (55.88) 776 (44.12)  
Sex of household head     χ2 = 0.4130
p = 0.520
 Male 142,558 (94.19) 43,724 (58.83) 30,594 (41.17)  
 Female 25,632 (5.81) 8697 (59.12) 6014 (40.88)  
Decision making capacity     χ2 = 752.00, p < 0.001
 No 96,244 (88.03) 26,704 (54.77) 22,051 (45.23)  
 Yes 71,219 (11.97) 25,672 (63.86) 14,527 (36.14)  
Wife beating attitude     χ2 = 124.99, p < 0.001
 Accept/justify 82,620 (46.33) 25,723 (57.06) 19,357 (42.94)  
 Disagree/Not justify 84,903 (53.67) 26,678 (60.75) 17,237 (39.25)  
Parity     χ2 = 86.12, p < 0.001
 Zero 10,882 (07.04) 3110 (55.32) 2512 (44.68)  
 1–2 51,939 (27.75) 16,740 (60.44) 10,956 (39.56)  
 3–4 47,235 (26.04) 14,985 (59.61) 10,154 (40.39)  
 5+ 57,537 (39.17) 17,586 (57.52) 12,986 (42.48)  
Family size     χ2 = 83.51, p < 0.001
  < 5 52,070 (25.32) 17,266 (61.09) 10,997 (38.91)  
 5+ 115,523 (74.68) 35,155 (57.85) 25,611 (42.15)  
Barriers to healthcare access     χ2 = 162.73, p < 0.001
 No 56,307 (20.01) 18,964 (61.79) 11,728 (38.21)  
 Yes 111,204 (79.99) 33,443 (57.36) 24,859 (42.64)  
Improved sanitation     χ2 = 303.33, p < 0.001
 No 88,343 (71.25) 27,212 (56.25) 21,167 (43.75)  
 Yes 79,822 (28.75) 25,200 (62.01) 15,436 (37.99)  
Religion     χ2 = 2000, p < 0.001
 Christian 101,456 (26.91) 35,626 (64.71) 19,432 (35.29)  
 Muslim 58,004 (63.85) 14,321 (48.89) 14,974 (51.11)  
 Others 8658 (9.24) 2453 (52.88) 2186 (47.12)  
Contraceptive use     χ2 = 2200, p < 0.001
 No 124,843 (84.98) 35,318 (54.21) 29,829 (45.79)  
 Yes 42,750 (15.02) 17,103 (71.61) 6779 (28.39)  
  1. Ref references, cOR crude Odd Ratio, aOR adjusted Odd Ratio, * significant at p < 0.05, ** significant at p < 0.01, *** significant at p < 0.001.