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Table 4 Perceived negative effects associated with the use of prescription stimulants, survey in French-speaking universities, Belgium, 2018

From: Use and misuse of prescription stimulants by university students: a cross-sectional survey in the french-speaking community of Belgium, 2018

Negative effects Medical users (N=180) Misusers (N=245) p-valueb
  n (%) 95%CI n (%) 95%CI a  
Sleep disorders 103 (57.2) 49.6-64.6 142 (58.0) 51.5-64.2 0.9
Palpitations 70 (38.9) 31.7-46.4 131 (53.8) 47.0-59.8 0.003
Emotional instability 84 (46.7) 39.2-54.2 105 (42.9) 36.6-49.3 0.4
Agitation 47 (26.1) 19.9-33.2 93 (38.0) 31.9-44.4 0.01
Aggressiveness 54 (30.0) 23.4-37.3 71 (29.0) 23.4-35.1 0.8
Headaches 33 (18.3) 13.0-24.8 73 (29.8) 24.1-35.9 0.007
Depression 62 (34.4) 27.5-41.9 57 (23.3) 18.1-29.1 0.01
Nausea 47 (26.1) 19.9-33.2 40 (16.3) 11.9-21.6 0.01
Anorexia 51 (28.3) 21.8-35.5 39 (15.9) 11.6-21.1 0.002
Suicidal thoughts 26 (14.4) 9.7-20.4 27 (11.0) 7.4-15.6 0.3
Hallucinations 9 (5.0) 2.3-9.3 12 (4.9) 2.6-8.4 >0.9
Other 33 (18.3) 13.0-24.8 28 (11.4) 7.7-16.1 0.04
  1. a95%CI: Clopper-Pearson confidence interval
  2. bChi-square test