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Table 2 Number and prevalence of healthcare-associated infections reported in the Belgian HALT surveys, 2010-2016

From: Healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in Belgian nursing homes: results of three point prevalence surveys between 2010 and 2016

  HALT-1 (2010) HALT-2 (2013) HALT-3 (2016)
n (%) Crude prevalence (%) n (%) Crude prevalence (%) n (%) Crude prevalence (%)
All HAI types 344 (100.0) 2.89 325 (100.0) 3.71 557 (100.0) 3.44
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) 166 (48.3) 1.39 119 (36.6) 1.36 242 (43.4) 1.49
 Common cold/pharyngitis 57 (34.3) 0.48 35 (29.4) 0.40 106 (43.8) 0.65
 Influenza-like illness 3 (1.8) 0.03 5 (4.2) 0.06 4 (1.7) 0.02
 Pneumonia 15 (9.0) 0.13 10 (8.4) 0.11 11 (4.5) 0.07
 Other lower RTIs 91 (54.8) 0.76 69 (58.0) 0.79 121 (50.0) 0.75
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) 35 (10.2) 0.29 111 (34.1) 1.27 172 (30.9) 1.06
 Confirmed UTIs - - 57 (51.4) 0.65 100 (58.1) 0.62
 Probable UTIsa - - 54 (48.6) 0.62 72 (41.9) 0.44
Skin infections 67 (19.5) 0.56 45 (13.8) 0.51 88 (15.8) 0.54
 Cellulitis/soft tissue/wound infections 60 (89.6) 0.50 43 (95.6) 0.49 70 (79.5) 0.43
 Herpes simplex or zoster infections 2 (3.0) 0.02 1 (2.2) 0.01 4 (4.5) 0.02
 Fungal infections 5 (7.5) 0.04 1 (2.2) 0.01 14 (15.9) 0.09
 Scabies 0 (0.0) 0.00 0 (0.0) 0.00 0 (0.0) 0.00
Gastrointestinal infections 18 (5.2) 0.15 20 (6.2) 0.23 18 (3.2) 0.11
 Gastroenteritis - - 17 (85.0) 0.19 18 (100.0) 0.11
Clostridioides difficile infections - - 3 (15.0) 0.03 0 (0.0) 0.00
Eye, ear, nose & mouth infections 34 (9.9) 0.29 15 (4.6) 0.17 18 (3.2) 0.11
 Conjunctivitis 24 (70.6) 0.20 10 (66.7) 0.11 12 (66.7) 0.07
 Ear infections 2 (5.9) 0.02 3 (20.0) 0.03 0 (0.0) 0.00
 Sinusitis 1 (2.9) 0.01 1 (6.7) 0.01 0 (0.0) 0.00
 Oral candidiasis 7 (20.6) 0.06 1 (6.7) 0.01 6 (33.3) 0.04
Bloodstream infections 1 (0.3) 0.01 1 (0.3) 0.01 0 (0.0) 0.00
Unexplained fever 2 (0.6) 0.02 9 (2.8) 0.10 8 (1.4) 0.05
Other infections 21 (6.1) 0.18 5 (1.5) 0.06 8 (1.4) 0.05
Unknown - - - - 3 (0.5) 0.02
  1. a Sufficient signs/symptoms but no microbiological evidence (urine culture test not done or result negative or unknown) to confirm the UTI; HAI: healthcare-associated infections