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Table 3 Characteristics of financial incentives

From: Do financial aspects affect care transitions in long-term care systems? A systematic review

Article Type of financial incentive Aim of the mechanism Group targeted through mechanism Intervention setting Intervention country
Anell & Glenngard (2014) [26] REWARD Pay-for-performance (use of outcome and process indicators) No information provided Older adults Primary care Sweden
Baumann et al., (2007) [27] PENALTY For delays from hospital Inter-agency collaboration ↑
Efficiency of discharge ↑
Discharge planning arrangements ↑
Older adults Hospital + Social sector United Kingdom
Birkmeyer et al., (2010) [28] REIMBURSMENT MECHANISM
Bundled payment for care around a surgical episode
Coordination of care ↑
Quality of care ↑
Cost-efficiency ↑
No specific requirement Hospital + Primary care + other care providers United States
Busetto et al., (2017) [29] REIMBURSMENT MECHANISM G-DRG -For the integrated care intervention + obligatory number of treatment sessions Effectiveness ↑
Efficiency ↑
Patient centeredness ↑
Satisfaction ↑
Safety ↑
Older adults Hospital Germany
Briggs & Carvalho (2018) [30] Information not provided Information not provided Older adults Information not provided Information not provided
Chen & Cheng (2016) [31] REWARD Pay-for-performance (For providing enhanced, guideline-based care) Healthcare provision ↑
Continuity-of-care ↑
Healthcare outcomes ↑
With specific condition/disease Primary care Taiwan
Cheng, Lee & Chen (2012) [32] REWARD Pay-for-performance (for 3 types of comprehensive visits) Healthcare provision ↑ With specific condition/disease Primary care Taiwan
Pan, Kung, Chiu, Liao & Tsai (2017) [33] REWARD Pay-for-performance (For improvement in 4 indicators, additional bonus for being the best) Patient outcomes ↑
Quality of care ↑
With specific condition/disease Primary care Taiwan
Ekdahl (2013) [34] Information not provided Information not provided Older adults Information not provided Information not provided
Fagan et al., (2010) [35] REWARD Pay-for-performance (Bonus payment for meeting specific quality indicator goals) Quality of care ↑
Resource use ↓
No specific requirement Primary care United States
Hollander & Kadiec (2015) [36] REWARD Pay-for-performance (For providing enhanced, guideline-based care) Annual healthcare costs ↓,
Hospital utilization ↓
With specific condition/disease Primary care Canada
Huitberg, Glendinning, Allebeck & Lönnroth (2005) [37] REIMBURSMENT MECHANISM
Pooled budgets to integrate health and welfare services (social and other services)
Coordination ↑
Efficiency ↑
Flexibility in the use of resources ↑
No specific requirement Health care providers + Social sector United Kingdom
Kasteridis et al., (2016) [38] REWARD Pay-for-performance (for identification and annual review of dementia patients) Discharge process ↑ With specific condition/disease Primary care United Kingdom
Kim et al., (2015) [39] REIMBURSMENT MECHANISM Prospective payments based on DRG – DRG-specific short stay threshold Short-stays in the long-term care hospitals ↓
Unnecessary transfers ↓
requirement Hospital United States
  PENALTY For short stay under the threshold Short-stays in the long-term care hospitals ↓
Unnecessary transfers ↓
No specific No specific requirement Hospital United States
Laugaland, Aase & Waring (2014) [40] PENALTY For delayed discharge from the hospital Patient flow ↑
Delayed discharge ↓
No specific requirement Municipality (primary care) Norway
Nishi, Maeda & Babazono (2017) [41] REWARD For the inter-provider care-planning Length of stay ↓
Total charge ↓
Older adults + with specific condition/disease Hospital Japan
Nolan (2011) [42] REIMBURSMENT MECHANISM Eligibility for free primary care Avoidable hospitalizations↓ Older adults Primary care Ireland
Pizer & Gardner (2011) [43] REIMBURSMENT MECHANISM Fragmented financing Continuity-of-care ↓
Health outcomes ↓
With specific condition/disease Primary care United States
Yu, Tsai & Kung (2013) [44] REWARD Pay-for-performance (for improved health outcomes) Holistic care ↑
Emergency department visits ↓
With specific condition/disease Primary care Taiwan
Total
Number of studies shown in parentheses
Rewards (9)
Reimbursement mechanism (6)
Penalties (3)
  With specific condition/disease (8)
Older adults (7)
No specific requirement (6)
Primary care (12)
Hospital (6)
Social sector (2)
Health care providers (1)
Other care providers (1)
United States (5)
Taiwan (4)
United Kingdom (3)
Sweden (1)
Japan (1)
Germany (1)
Canada (1)
Norway (1)
Ireland (1)
Information not provided (2)
  1. The sum of N per category can exceed 19 as papers can be classified into multiple sub-categories
  2. ↑ - increase, improve
  3. ↓ - decrease