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Table 4 Financial incentives – impact on measured indicators

From: Do financial aspects affect care transitions in long-term care systems? A systematic review

Article Financial incentives Measurement Impact on measured indicators
Anell & Glenngard (2014) [26] P4P Utilization of hospital care, number of bed-days Information not provided
Baumann et al., (2007) [27] Penalties for delayed discharge for responsible party Information not provided +
Birkmeyer et al., (2010) [28] Episode-based payment bundling, single payment to all providers for care around surgical episode Average total payments around inpatient surgery (hospital, physician, post-acute care)
30 days readmission
Busetto et al., (2017) [29] Early complex geriatric rehabilitation Effectiveness, efficiency, patient-centeredness, satisfaction, safety
Briggs & Carvalho (2018) [30] Information not provided Information not provided Information not provided
Chen & Cheng (2016) [31] P4P The number of essential examinations/tests, continuity of care, health care outcomes +
Cheng, Lee & Chen (2012) [32] P4P Long-term effects of P4P program, healthcare utilization - Essential examinations/tests performed at diabetes-related physician visits,
Diabetes-related hospitalizations,
Diabetes-related health care expenses
Impact on overall health care expenses, including both diabetes-related and nondiabetic-related conditions.
Pan, Kung, Chiu, Liao & Tsai (2017) [33] P4P Mortality, patients’ physician continuity +
Ekdahl (2013) [34] Information not provided Information not provided Information not provided
Fagan et al., (2010) [35] P4P Quality of care for the incentivized care indicators, quality of care for the nonincentivized care indicators, utilization and medical costs incurred +/−
Hollander & Kadiec (2015) [36] P4P Total annual costs of health care, number of indicators of hospital utilization +
Huitberg, Glendinning, Allebeck & Lönnroth (2005) [37] Pooled budgets to integrate health and welfare services Coordination
Experiences of service users
Kasteridis et al., (2016) [38] P4P Likelihood of care home placement following acute hospital admission +
Kim et al., (2015) [39] DRG-specific short-stay threshold Information not provided
Laugaland, Aase & Waring (2014) [40] Penalties for delayed discharge Information not provided
Nishi, Maeda & Babazono (2017) [41] Regional inter-provider care-planning fee LOS, total charge +/−
Nolan (2011) [42] Eligibility for free primary care Avoidable hospitalizations +/−
Pizer & Gardner (2011) [43] Fragmented financing Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions +
Yu, Tsai & Kung (2013) [44] P4P Emergency department visits +/−
  1. + improved
  2. +/− no effect or effect unclear
  3. - negative effect
  4. / lack of data