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Table 2 Relative frequencies of the responses by women in 5 European countries responding to the survey on mammography screening, 2021 (n = 1180)

From: Factors affecting intention to screen after being informed of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: a study in 5 European countries in 2021

   Country
Belgium France Italy Spain UK Total
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Intention
Intention to participate after being informed about benefits and harms
More likely to participate 96 40.7 121 50.8 154 64.4 205 89.9 96 40.2 672 56.9
Neither more nor less likely to participate 128 54.2 104 43.7 75 31.4 12 5.3 132 55.2 451 38.2
  Less likely to participate 12 5.1 13 5.5 10 4.2 11 4.8 11 4.6 57 4.8
Screening History
Has Participated in Breast Cancer Screening
Yes 213 90.3 214 89.9 216 90.4 208 91.2 215 90.0 1066 90.3
No 23 9.7 24 10.1 23 9.6 20 8.8 24 10.0 114 9.7
Health Knowledge
Aware that Breast Cancer Screening has Benefits and Harms
Correct 56 23.7 49 20.6 32 13.4 31 13.6 62 25.9 230 19.5
Incorrect 180 76.3 189 79.4 207 86.6 197 86.4 177 74.1 950 80.5
Health Literacy
HLS-EU-Q6 Score
Inadequate Health Literacy (≤2) 16 6.8 19 8.0 16 6.7 16 7.0 8 3.3 75 6.4
Limited Health Literacy (> 2 and ≤ 3) 179 75.8 163 68.5 177 74.1 167 73.2 167 69.9 853 72.3
Sufficient Health Literacy (> 3) 41 17.4 56 23.5 46 19.2 45 19.7 64 26.8 252 21.4
Social Norms
Most people who are important to me think I should have my breasts screened
I am not sure 44 18.6 50 21.0 60 25.1 51 22.4 56 23.4 261 22.1
Disagree 29 12.3 51 21.4 40 16.7 22 9.6 22 9.2 164 13.9
Agree 163 69.1 137 57.6 139 58.2 155 68.0 161 67.4 755 64.0
Perceived Behavioural Control
Keeping my appointment for breast cancer screening will be
I am not sure 24 10.2 22 9.2 54 22.6 41 18.0 23 9.6 164 13.9
Difficult 19 8.1 33 13.9 13 5.4 13 5.7 17 7.1 95 8.1
Easy 193 81.8 183 76.9 172 72.0 174 76.3 199 83.3 921 78.1
Perceived Susceptibility
My chances of getting breast cancer in the next few years are great
I am not sure 139 58.9 125 52.5 131 54.8 165 72.4 156 65.3 716 60.7
Disagree 74 31.4 93 39.1 92 38.5 20 8.8 54 22.6 333 28.2
Agree 23 9.7 20 8.4 16 6.7 43 18.9 29 12.1 131 11.1
Perceived Barriers
I have other problems more important than getting a mammogram
I am not sure 47 19.9 39 16.4 56 23.4 30 13.2 35 14.6 207 17.5
Disagree 140 59.3 144 60.5 158 66.1 167 73.2 170 71.1 779 66.0
Agree 49 20.8 55 23.1 25 10.5 31 13.6 34 14.2 194 16.4