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Table 6 Individual and community level Factors affecting Minimum Dietary Diversity in Ethiopian Demography Health Survey, 2019 (n = 1578) 

From: Spatial variation and determinates of dietary diversity among children aged 6–23 months in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis using Ethiopian Demography Health Survey (EDHS) 2019

Variables Categories MDDs Odds ratio
  Adequate Inadequate COR AOR1(95% CI) AOR2(95% CI) AOR3 (95% CI)
Age of child 6-11 m 41(8.11) 467(91.89) 1 1   1
12-17 m 92(16.05) 479(83.95) 0.34(0.21, 0.54) 0.26(0.16, 0.44)***   0.27(0.16, 0.45)***
18-23 m 65(13.09) 434(86.91) 0.52(0.32, 0.85) 0.42(0.25, 0.71)***   0.43(0.25, 0.73)***
Sex of the household head Male 170(12.87) 1189(87.49) 1 1   1
Female 28(12.56) 191(87.13) 0.55(0.32, 0.95) 1.17(0.59, 2.29)   1.08(0.54, 2.15)
Mother education level No education 54(7.64) 657(92.36) 1 1   1
Primary 97(15.06) 549(84.94) 0.55(0.36, 0.85) 0.36(0.22, 0.60)***   0.43(0.26, 0.74)***
Secondary 28(20.65) 107(79.35) 0.45(0.24, 0.83) 0.38(0.17, 0.85)***   0.43(0.19, 0.95)**
Higher 19(21.82) 67(78.18) 0.25(0.11, 0.54) 0.25(0.09, 0.66)***   0.31(0.12, 0.82)**
Wealth index Poor 50.67(7.78) 601.05(92.22) 2.42(1.46, 4.01) 1.95(1.05, 3.63)*   1.24(0.62, 2.46)
Middle 42.30(14.16) 456.46(85.84) 1.76(1.03, 3.01) 1.62(0.87, 3.00)   1.39(0.74, 2.66)
Rich 105.18(16.76) 522.35(83.24) 1 1   1
Marital status Not married 27.33(31.34) 59.87(68.66) 1 1   1
Married 170.82(11.46) 1319.98(88.54) 5.22(2.74, 9.96) 7.28(3.26, 16.28)***   6.19(2.73, 14.07)***
Age of women 15–24 63.63(12.57) 442.74(87.43) 1 1   1
25–34 96.84(12.28) 691.83(87.72) 0.89(0.59, 1.34) 0.50(0.29, 0.87)***   0.56(0.32, 0.98)**
35–49 37.68(13.32) 245(86.68) 0.71(0.42, 1.19) 0.25(0.11, 0.56)***   0.30(0.13, 0.69)***
Birth order First-order 55.85(14.26) 335.67(85.74) 1 1   1
Second to fourth order 101.79(13.86) 632.51(86.14) 1.10(0.72, 1.69) 1.36(0.78, 2.39)   1.27(0.77, 2.23)
Fifth and above order 40.54(8.96) 411.68(91.04) 1.61(0.96, 2.69) 2.31(1.01, 5.27)*   1.99(0.86, 4.60)
Postnatal check within two months No 149.25(11.30) 1171.29(88.70) 1 1   1
Yes 47.62(23.30) 156.78(76.70) 0.41(0.25, 0.65) .38(0.22, 0.65)***   0.37(0.22, 0.64)***
Place of delivery Institution delivery 134.67(15.69) 723.55(84.31) 1 1   1
Home delivery 63.47(8.82) 656.31(91.18) 1.41(0.89, 2.21) 1.15(0.65, 2.03)   1.05(0.59, 1.88)
Number of ANC visit No visit 40.83(10.75) 409.19(88.41) 1.05(0.62, 1.77) .55(0.29, 1.04)   0.53(0.27,1.01)
1–3 visit 53.65(11.59) 409.19(88.41) 1.15(0.74, 1.78) 1.04(0.63, 1.69)   0.92(0.56, 1.52)
4 and above visit 102.38(15.00) 580.34(85.00) 1 1   1
Community level poverty Higher 55.18(7.54) 676.44(92.46) 5.35(2.58, 11.1)   2.58(1.19, 5.58)** 2.73(1.09, 6.80)**
Lower 142.97(16.89) 703.42(83.11) 1   1 1
Community level education Higher 30.65(5.58) 519.05(94.42) 6.83(3.12, 14.93)   3.88(1.69, 8.95)*** 2.78(1.08, 7.14)**
Lower 167.50(16.29) 860.81(83.71) 1   1 1
Region metropolitan 15.71(24.1) 49.46(75.90) 1   1 1
Small peripheral 4.65(3.19) 141.93(96.81) 14.49(3.51, 59.83)   4.07(0.91, 18.13) 3.41(0.67, 17.34)
Large central 177.80(13.01) 1189.12(86.99) 3.19(1.26, 8.09)   1.55(0.53, 4.50) 1.41(0.43, 4.59)
Residence Urban 67.01(15.19) 374.12(84.81) 1   1 1
Rural 131.14(11.54) 1379.86(88.46) 3.12(1.48, 6.59)   1.13(0.48, 2.71) 0.77(0.29, 2.07)
  1. ANC Anti Natal Care, MDD Minimum Dietary Diversity
  2. *P value < 0.05, **P value < 0.01, *** P value < 0.001