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Table 1 Comparison of primary cannabis users with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine users (n = 1347)

From: Cannabis-Related treatment demands in Belgium: a socio-demographic and treatment seeking profile

  Cannabis
(n = 236)
Valid %
Alcohol
(n = 758)
Valid %
Opiate
(n = 130)
Valid %
Amphetamine
(n = 123)
Valid %
Cocaine
(n = 100)
Valid %
Chi2
(df = 4)
or
t-value
(df = 4)
p-value Group differences
Sex       33.728 .000 a, c
Male 86.9 70.7 78.5 65.9 82.0    
Female 13.1 29.3 21.5 34.1 18.0    
Age         
< 20 38.1 0.7 2.3 24.8 4.0 326.142 .000 a, b, d
20-29 43.2 8.5 36.7 47.9 48.0 228.939 .000 a
30-39 11.9 22.2 43.0 18.2 36.0 56.726 .000 a, b, d
40-49 6.4 35.5 13.3 7.4 12.0 128.936 .000 a
> 49 0.4 33.2 4.7 1.7 0.0 212.583 .000 a, b
Mean age (SD) 23.6
(7.83)
44.7
(10.81)
32.5
(7.89)
26.1
(8.43)
30.1
(7.17)
292.272 .000 a, b, d
Country of birth         
Belgium 91.4 92.9 64.1 96.7 81.4 110.308 .000 b, d
Living situation         
Alone 22.5 44.2 27.0 23.6 25.5 57.361 .000 a
With partner and/or children 13.0 39.3 31.0 17.1 25.5 71.926 .000 a, b
With parents 52.4 6.4 9.5 35.0 25.5 275.958 .000 a, b, c, d
Homeless 2.6 5.1 12.7 4.1 12.2 24.027 .000 b, d
Employment situation         
Employed 18.6 33.7 24.8 24.8 38.9 25.146 .000 a, d
Student 41.2 1.2 3.5 18.8 3.2 310.150 .000 a, b, c, d
Unemployed 23.9 25.5 33.6 35.0 44.2 20.793 .000 d
Invalidity 13.7 27.6 20.4 17.1 6.3 37.197 .000 a
Legal problems         
None 52.8 88.3 73.3 52.9 79.8 171.737 .000 a, b, d
Release on bail or other conditions awaiting trial/sentencing 3.4 2.4 5.8 8.3 5.1 12.999 .011  
Probation after detention 9.8 3.7 11.7 17.4 8.1 38.804 .000 a
Compulsory admission 3.4 3.6 2.5 5.8 3.0 2.189 NS  
Juvenile court 5.5 0.3 0.8 6.6 0.0 46.553 .000 a
Therapeutic advice 22.6 0.3 0.0 1.7 0.0 231.932 .000 a, c
Regular use substances         
Alcohol (> = 5 glasses a day) 40.3 99.3 29.4 43.3 50.5 600.038 .000 a
Amphetamines 18.7 4.5 19.5 98.4 30.3 616.082 .000 a, c
Cannabis 99.6 9.5 39.0 48.8 53.1 673.135 .000 a, b, c, d
Cocaine 19.1 7.8 48.4 33.9 100.0 487.140 .000 a, b, c
Ecstasy 19.0 3.6 13.9 41.3 17.2 166.883 .000 a, c
Hallucinogens 5.6 1.5 9.9 8.3 6.1 32.847 .000 a
Opiates 1.7 1.3 92.2 10.1 18.0 882.551 .000 b, c, d
Sedatives 9.0 22.7 30.4 28.2 28.6 33.662 .000 a, b, c, d
Only regular use of primary drug 43.6 68.1 17.7 19.5 22.0 233.711 .000 a, b, c, d
Injected during last year 3.4 0.9 37.6 23.7 20.0 234.873 .000 b, c, d
Treatment history 49.1 81.0 81.6 73.6 72.7 97.299 .000 a, b, c, d
Number of registrations > 1 5.9 14.8 12.3 19.5 18.0 18.120 .001 a, c, d
Types of treatment centres         
Inpatient 27.5 77.6 28.5 38.2 51.0 278.227 .000 a, d
Outpatient 70.3 19.9 66.9 56.1 41.0 273.105 .000 a, d
Both 2.1 2.5 4.6 5.7 8.0 12.206 NS  
Source of referral         
No source of referral 16.1 29.6 38.0 17.1 35.0 33.863 .000 a, b, d
Immediate surroundings 18.6 18.8 18.6 13.8 13.0 3.565 NS  
Police or justice 43.6 9.9 7.8 34.1 12.0 171.881 .000 a, b, d
Specialised substance abuse treatment 1.7 2.9 11.6 7.3 15.0 48.173 .000 b, d
General hospital 3.4 9.1 3.1 2.4 6.0 17.593 .001 a
General practitioner 4.7 12.0 6.2 6.5 8.0 15.423 .004 a
Psychiatric hospital 5.5 8.7 2.3 8.1 3.0 11.201 .024  
Outcome of intake interview         
Start of treatment 69.5 89.1 73.8 73.2 70.0 70.065 .000 a,
Immediate referral to other centre 4.7 2.9 18.5 15.4 19.0 82.786 .000 b, c, d
Without consequences 25.8 8.0 7.7 11.4 11.0 57.779 .000 a, b, c, d
  1. a: Significant difference between primary cannabis and primary alcohol users
  2. b: Significant difference between primary cannabis and primary opiate users
  3. c: Significant difference between primary cannabis and primary amphetamine users
  4. d: Significant difference between primary cannabis and primary cocaine users