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Table 5 Mean and median intakes of nutrients and foods and the % of the population that had intakes above the upper levels, calculated with adjustment for within-individual variabilitya

From: Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

Nutrient Age Reference values Mean (SD) Median (SE) % > UL/AMDRUL(SE)
Protein* < 4 years 10 - 15% 16,4 (2.1) 16,3 (0.2) 75 (5.0)
  ≥ 4 years   15,3 (2.1) 15,2 (0.2) 53 (3.0)
Saturated fatty < 4 years 8 - 12% 13,4 (2.7) 13,3 (0.3) 69 (4.0)
acids* ≥ 4 years   13,4 (1.9) 13,4 (0.2) 77 (4.0)
Simple < 4 years < 15%£ 30,7 (5.3) 30,6 (0.6) 100 -
carbohydrates* ≥ 4 years   31,4 (5.2) 31,3 (0.4) 100 -
Food group Age FBDG Mean (SD) Median (SE) %> FBDG UL (SE)
Restgroup (snacks/desserts)† < 4 years restricted 46,8 (13.3) 45,1 (1.2) 36 (3.4)
  ≥ 4 years   53,7 (16.4) 52,0 (1.0) 55 (2.3)
Restgroup (sugared drinks)‡ < 4 years restricted 89,9 (106.2) 56,0 (9.5) 35 (3.4)
  ≥ 4 years   123,7 (131.5) 72,0 (7.6) 40 (2.3)
Restgroup (fried potatoes)μ < 4 years restricted 12,6 (9.3) 11,4 (0.8) 36 (3.4)
  ≥ 4 years   14,2 (6.0) 13,5 (0.3) 38 (2.3)
Restgroup (sauces)μ < 4 years restricted 12,5 (5.2) 13,1 (0.5) 34 (3.4)
  ≥ 4 years   12,9 (4.5) 13,2 (0.3) 32 (2.2)
Restgroup (sweet spreads)μ < 4 years restricted 14,4 (8.8) 12,4 (0.8) 38 (3.5)
  ≥ 4 years   14,4 (8.7) 13,2 (0.5) 41 (2.3)
  1. a Only nutrients and food groups for which the percentage of children with excessive intakes was > 30% are presented.
  2. * Percentage of total energy intake supplied by the respective nutrient and its recommendation expressed as acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR).
  3. † Sweet deserts (e.g. ice cream, tiramisu), sweet snacks, salty snacks (e.g. chips), chocolate, and brioches. Although the recommendation is to limit these food products, the percentage given in the column > FBDGUL are children consuming more than 50 g/d of these snacks.
  4. ‡ Sugared drinks (e.g. tea with sugar added) and softdrinks, but no fruit juices. Although the recommendation is to limit these food products, the percentage given in the column > FBDGUL are children consuming more than 100 ml/d of these sugared drinks.
  5. μ Although the recommendation is to limit these food products, the percentage given in the column > FBDGUL are children consuming more than 15 g/d of these sauces.
  6. £No national recommendations are available for simple carbohydrates. Therefore, intakes were compared with a reference value of 15 precent of total energy intake.
  7. Upper level (UL)
  8. Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG)
  9. n (< 4 years old) 197, n (≥4 years old) 465