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Table 2 Factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal: Adjusted odds ratio

From: Role of antenatal care and iron supplementation during pregnancy in preventing low birth weight in Nepal: comparison of national surveys 2006 and 2011

Factors Model 1 Model 2 (NDHS 2006) Model 3 (NDHS 2011)
Antenatal care
4 or more ANC visit 1.00 1.00 1.00
No ANC visit 2.301 (1.526-3.471)* 3.118 (1.628-5.696)* 1.578 (1.062-2.345)*
1-3 ANC visit 1.513 (0.948-2.412) 2.031 (1.050-3.929) 1.080 (0.700-1.665)
Iron consumption during pregnancy
Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00
No/Do not know 1.839 (1.282-2.636)* 1.840 (1.087-3.116)* 1.490 (1.013-2.193)*
Maternal education
Secondary 1.00 1.00 1.00
No education 0.802 (0.588-1.154) 1.027 (0.615-1.714) 0.717 (0.449-1.147)
Primary 1.491(1.024-2.171) * 2.113 (1.224-3.650)* 1.229 (0.751-2.013)
Higher 0.910 (0.525-1.578) 0.358 (0.127-1.008) 1.130 (0.611-2.092)
Development region
Central 1.00 1.00 1.00
Eastern 1.982 (1.261-3.115)* 1.433 (0.794-2.584) 1.872 (1.138-3.080)*
Western 1.245 (0.683-2.272) 1.244 (0.644-2.404) 1.110 (0.581-2.120)
Mid -western 1.029 (0.501-2.114) 0.709 (0.161-3.122) 1.501(0.905-2.490)
Far-western 1.910 (1.035-3.528)* 2.433 (0.899-6.659) 1.736 (1.059-2.847)*
  1. *:statistically significant. NDHS: Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys.
  2. Model 1: All independent variables of interest shown in Figure 1 (Conceptual framework) were entered in the initial model for pooled data, and 2006 and 2011 survey data. # ANC was replaced by iron (in each models, and the odds ratios were presented in the above mentioned table) as iron supplementation and ANC visits were highly correlated (r = 0.8). Model 2 and Model 3: Effect modification of the survey period were examined including the four interaction terms ANC*Year (F = 2.697; p = 0.069), Iron*Year (F = 0.908; p =0.341 ), Region*Year (F = 0.505; p = 0.732), Education of mothers* Years (F = 2.936, p value = 0.033) separately. As one of the interactions was found statistically significant, we built additional regression models for each year separately; Model 2: Survey 2006 and Model 3: Survey 2011.