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Table 2 Comparing differences between crude analysis (simple logistic regression) and adjusted analysis (multiple logistic regression) on factors associated with stunted growth of children under-five in Ghana, 2011

From: Determinant of factors associated with child health outcomes and service utilization in Ghana: multiple indicator cluster survey conducted in 2011

  Crude analysis Adjusted analysis
Covariates/exposure OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95%) p-value
NHIS membership (main exposure variable)     
  No 1 1 1 0.200
  Yes 0.90 (0.72-1.11) 0.331 0.87 (0.70-1.08)  
Sex     
  Male 1 1 1 0.000***
  Female 0.76 (0.65-0.89) 0.001** 0.75 (0.64-0.88)  
Age in months     
Mothers education     
  None 1 1 1 1
  Primary 0.82 (0.65-1.04) 0.000*** 1.00 (0.80-1.28) 0.944
  Secondary 0.54 (0.45-0.66)   0.81 (0.65-1.00)  
  Tertiary 0.36 (0.25-0.50)   0.78 (0.51-1.22)  
Geographic location     
  Rural 1 0.000*** 0.97 (0.75-1.24) 0.783
  Urban 1.61 (1.32-1.96)    
Socioeconomic status     
  Poorest 1 0.000*** 0.80 (0.64-0.99) 0.000***
  Second 0.75 (0.62-0.92)   0.66 (0.50-0.87)  
  Middle 0.61 (0.47-0.79)   0.42 (0.82-0.61)  
  Fourth 0.39 (0.28-0.54)   0.32 (0.20-0.50)  
  Richest 0.26 (0.19-0.36)    
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 significant levels.