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Table 3 Comparing differences between crude analysis (simple logistic regression) and adjusted analysis (multiple logistic regression) on factors associated with anaemic children under-five, in Ghana, 2011

From: Determinant of factors associated with child health outcomes and service utilization in Ghana: multiple indicator cluster survey conducted in 2011

  Crude analysis Adjusted analysis
Covariates/exposure OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95%) p-value
NHIS membership (main exposure variable)     
  No 1 1 1 0.000***
  Yes 0.59 (0.49-0.72) 0.000*** 0.36 (0.23-0.55)  
Sex     
  Male 1 1 1 0.286
  Female 0.74 (0.63-0.88) 0.001** 0.79 (0.51-1.22)  
Age in months     
  6–11 1 0.034* 1 0.638
  12–23 1.25 (0.91-1.71)   0.69 (0.15-0.19)  
  24–35 0.70 (0.50-0.97)   0.51 (0.12-2.16)  
  36–47 0.62 (0.48-0.84)   0.51 (0.13-2.06)  
  48-59 0.51 (0.36-0.71)   0.30 (0.07-1.28)  
Mothers education     
  None 1 0.000*** 1 0.02*
  Primary 0.70 (0.55-0.89)   0.83 (0.63-1.10)  
  Secondary 0.45 (0.36-0.57)   0.64 (0.49-0.83)  
  Tertiary 0.33 (0.24-0.47)   0.68 (0.45-1.02)  
Geographic location     
  Rural 1 1 1 0.396
  Urban 0.53 (0.46-0.65) 0.000*** 0.79 (0.47-1.35)  
Socioeconomic status     
  Poorest 1 0.000*** 1 0.000***
  Second 0.63 (0.49-0.18)   0.66 (0.37-1.18)  
  Middle 0.46 (0.34-0.63)   0.37 (0.20-0.69)  
  Fourth 0.33 (0.24-0.45)   0.39 (0.20-0.76)  
  Richest 0.21 (0.15-0.28)   0.13 (0.07-0.25)  
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 significant levels.