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Table 3 Cox proportional Hazards showing risk of mortality among under-five children with severe acute malnutrition attending University Teaching Hospital, in Lusaka

From: Mortality and morbidity patterns in under-five children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Zambia: a five-year retrospective review of hospital-based records (2009–2013)

Characteristic Population Mortality*
  %(n) Hazards Ratio (CI) P value*
Sex (n = 9 534)    
 Male 53.9 (5 148) 1  
 Female 45.9 (4 386) 1.1 (1.1-1.2) 0.034
HIV status (n = 8 589)    
 Negative 67.8 (5 827) 1  
 Positive 32.2 (2 589) 1.8 (1.6- 2.0) 0.000
Morbidity (n = 9 076)    
 Marasmic-kwashiorkor 15.8 (1 511) 1  
 Marasmus 21.6 (1 957) 1.1 (1.0-1.7) 0.159
 Kwashiorkor 61.8 (5 609) 1.0 (1.1-1.8) 0.707
Co morbidity (n = 2 037)    
 No comorbidity 78.7 (7 503) 1  
 Anaemia 2.3 (218) 1.0 (0.8-1.4) 0.933
 Diarrhoea 7.6 (723) 1.6 (1.3-1.9) 0.000
 Pneumonia 5.7 (544) 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 0.008
 Septicaemia 1.5 (146) 2.8 (2.9- 3.9) 0.000
 Tuberculosis 1.2 (113) 1.0 (0.5-1.4) 0.971
 Other 3.1 (293) 1.8 (0.7-1.8) 0.000
Residence (n = 5 141)    
 Lusaka 50.2 (4 791) 1  
 Out of Lusaka 4.0 (358) 0.7 (0.5- 0.9) 0.010
  1. *tested using Cox proportional Hazards Regression.