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Table 2 Introduction of prelacteal feeding by background individual and community-level characteristics of children (N = 7692), Ethiopia 2011

From: Individual and community-level factors associated with introduction of prelacteal feeding in Ethiopia

Variables Received prelacteal; % Total; N (%)
Individual-level variables   
Ethnicity
 Afar 26.05 62(0.80)
 Amhara 44.94 2,198(28.57)
 Oromo 24.92 2,689(34.96)
 Somali 74.07 184(2.39)
 Tigrie 26.38 508(6.61)
 Others ethnic groups (Guragie, Berta…) 13.66 2051(26.67)
Religion
 Protestant 10.26 1,727(22.46)
 Orthodox 38.14 3,234(42.04)
 Muslim 30.51 2,484(32.29)
 Others (traditional…) 22.59 247(3.21)
Household wealth quintiles
 Poorest 38.31 1,686(21.92)
 Poorer 31.06 1,659(21.57)
 Middle 27.27 1,588(20.65)
 Richer 22.36 1,465(19.04)
 Richest 23.37 1,294(16.83)
Mothers age at birth   
 Less than 25 years 30.96 3,000(39.00)
 25–34 years 25.39 3,431(44.60)
 35+ 33.64 1,261(16.39)
Mothers level of education   
 No education 31.5 5,141(66.84)
 Primary education 23.16 2,198(28.57)
 Secondary & higher 27.12 353(4.58)
Mothers has job   
 No 26.81 3,486(45.32)
 Yes 30.66 4,206(54.68)
Mothers media exposed   
 No 32.43 3,130(40.69)
 Yes 26.51 4,562(59.31)
ANC visit   
 No visit 32.41 4,425(57.53)
 1–3 visits 26.31 1,816(23.60)
 > = 4 visits 21.52 1,451(18.86)
Delivery assistance   
 Other person 29.9 6,739(87.61)
 Health personnel (Midwife, Nurse …) 21.97 953(12.39)
Mode of delivery   
 Other mode 28.85 7,564(98.33)
 Caesarean delivery 32.67 128(1.67)
Place of delivery   
 Health facility 21.86 875(11.37)
 Home 29.82 6,817(88.63)
Initiation of breastfeeding   
 Early 16.16 4,043(52.56)
 Late 43.05 3,649(47.44)
Perceived size of child at birth   
 Small 34.96 2,405(31.26)
 Middle 25.93 3,019(39.25)
 Large 26.47 2,268(29.49)
Sex of child   
 Female 27.51 3,735(48.56)
 Male 30.24 3,956(51.44)
Birth order   
 1st 33.86 1,357(17.65)
 2nd and 3rd 27.03 2,401(31.21)
 4th+ 28.36 3,934(51.14)
Community-level variables   
Place of residence   
 Urban 25.06 1,132(14.72)
 Rural 29.58 6,560(85.28)
Contextual region   
 City dwellers 26.66 227(2.95)
 Agrarian 27.75 7,202(93.63)
 Pastoralist 62.65 263(3.42)
Community ANC utilization   
 Low 38.04 2,515(32.70)
 Middle 25.83 4,326(56.24)
 High 17.65 851(11.06)
Community media exposure   
 Low 37.00 1,582(20.57)
 Middle 27.00 5,315(69.10)
 High 21.00 795(10.33)
Community women average year of schooling   
 Low 33.02 4,830(62.79)
 High 21.99 2,862(37.21)
  1. Note: Number and Percentages were weighted using individual-level sampling weights