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Table 2 Participants’ non-medical determinants of health, N = 237

From: Determinants of health- related quality of life (HRQoL) among deaf and hard of hearing adults in Greece: a cross-sectional study

Variable Hearing Hard of Hearing Deaf P-value
Tobacco consumer 0.13a
 Current 38 (39.2) 20 (37.0) 48 (55.8)  
 Former 18 (18.6) 9 (16.7) 10 (11.6)  
 Never 41 (42.3) 9 (46.3) 28 (32.6)  
Number of cigarettes smoked per day e 11 (59) 20 (58) 20 (35) < 0.001***f
Years of smoking e 12 (37) 20 (43) 18 (39) 0.01*f
Alcohol consumption (units of alcohol per week) e 1 (10) 2 (10) 3.5 (15) < 0.001***f
Body Mass Index (BMI) b 26.1 (4.6) 27.4 (4.2) 27.9 (4.1) 0.02*c
BMI Classification 0.004**d
 Underweight 2 (2.1) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Normal 43 (44.3) 14 (25.9) 20 (23.3)  
 Overweight 37 (38.1) 30 (55.6) 48 (55.8)  
 Obese 15 (15.5) 10 (18.5) 18 (20.9)  
Physical activity (hours per week) e 2 (10) 2 (10) 0 (8) < 0.001***f
  1. Values are expressed as n (%) unless otherwise is indicated
  2. *p value 0.01 to 0.05 (significant)
  3. **p value 0.001 to 0.01 (very significant)
  4. ***p value 0.0001 to 0.001 (extremely significant)
  5. ax2 test
  6. bMean (standard deviation)
  7. cAnalysis of variance
  8. dx2 trend test
  9. eMedian (range)
  10. fKruskal-Wallis