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Table 1 Prevalence and KAP items. HOME-EU Opinion Survey. March 2017–December 2017

From: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about homelessness and willingness-to-pay for housing-first across 8 European countries: a survey protocol

Measure Sources Items
Prevalence Questions from Tompsett & Toro’s questionnaire (Tompsett et al. 2006 [23]) have been adapted.
Questions are preceded by a definition of homelessness as being either roofless or houseless (Edgar et al., 2007 [38]).
Have you ever been homeless? (yes/no)
When was It? (In the past 12 months/1–2 years ago/3–4 years ago/4–5 years ago/More than 5 years ago/DK /R)
How much time in total have you been homeless over your life? (Less than a week/Less than a month/Less than a year/Less than two years/Less than four years/More than four years/DK /R)
Has any member of your family, friend or acquaintance ever been homeless? (yes/no/DK /R)
Was it …? (Parent [father, mother]/Child/Brother/sister/Husband/wife/ partner/Friend/Other relative/ Acquaintance/DK /R)
Knowledge Questions from Tompsett & Toro’s questionnaire (Tompsett et al. 2006 [23]) have been adapted. In your opinion, what is the percentage of people experiencing homelessness with...
• Mental disorders?
• Addiction problems (alcohol, drugs)?
Ad-hoc questions Could you tell me approximately how many people experiencing homelessness there are, in (country)?
In (country), who funds most social services for homeless people? (Government/ Non-Governmental Organizations -Charities /Churches and religious communities/DK /R)
In (country), who funds most healthcare facilities for homeless people? (Government/ Non-Governmental Organizations -Charities /Churches and religious communities/DK /R)
Attitudes Questions are from the Eurobarometer (2010). In (country), in the last 3 years, would you say the number of people experiencing homelessness has …(Strongly increased/Somewhat increased/Somewhat decreased/Strongly decreased/Stayed the same (spontaneous)/DK / R)
In your opinion, what are the three reasons that best explain why people become homeless?
Ad-hoc questions Should public authorities consider homelessness as a priority? (yes/no/DK /R)
In your opinion, who should be mainly responsible for providing… (Government/Non-Governmental Organizations-Charities/Churches and religious communities/ Homeless themselves/ DK /R)
• Emergency shelter for homeless people?
• Long-term housing for homeless people?
Which homeless group should be given priority for a long-term housing program?
In general, do you think the Government spends … (Too much/Enough /Too little/DK /R)
• On social welfare?
• To help homeless people?
In your opinion, do services the needs of homeless people: (strongly agree /somewhat agree/somewhat disagree/strongly disagree/DK/R)
• In hospitals and emergency rooms
• By General Practitioners and outpatient specialists
• In emergency shelters
• In transitional shelters
• In the Housing First program better meet the needs of people experiencing homelessness when compared to transitional shelter services
When passing by a homeless person you are cautious? (Often/Sometimes/Rarely/Never/DK /R)
Questions from Tompsett & Toro’s questionnaire (Tompsett et al. 2006 [23]) have been adapted. To reduce homelessness, would you be willing to…>(yes/no/DK /R)
• Pay more taxes?
• Volunteer?
• Have a homeless shelter near your home?
Practices This question from the Eurobarometer (2010) has been adapted. In the area where you live, would you say there are (many, some, a few or no) homeless people?
Questions from Tompsett & Toro’s questionnaire (Tompsett et al. 2006 [23]) have been adapted. On average, how many different people experiencing homelessness do you see per week? (None/ 1 OR 2/3 TO 10/More than 10/DK/R)
Over the past year, have you… (yes/no/DK /R)
• Given money, food or clothing to a homeless person?
• Given money, food or clothing to a charitable or non-profit organization for homeless people?
• Done any volunteer work in a charitable or in a non-profit organization for homeless people?
Opinions regarding core constructs such as:
Capabilities Empowerment Community integration Satisfaction with services
Based on the Capabilities approach from Amartya Sen (Sen, 1980 [48]; 1985 [47]; Nussbaum & Sen, 1993; Nussbaum, 2011 [46]). I will read several statements about homeless people. [Read out item] Please tell me if you… (strongly agree /somewhat agree/somewhat disagree/strongly disagree/DK/R)
People experiencing homelessness are the victims of assaults (violence, robbery, threats, and attacks).
They are discriminated against in hiring
They eat at least two meals a day
They are able to keep in touch with family and friends
They have a shorter life expectancy than the general population
Derived from the Empowerment scale by Rogers (Rogers et al. 1997 [36]). Many remain homeless by choice
They could look after (keep clean, decorate) a home if they had one
Most have working skills
Derived from the Community integration approach described by McColl (McColl et al. 2001 [37]) They spend much of their time alone, outside of any social network
They have access to paid or unpaid work (volunteering, internship etc.)
Their main source of income comes from social welfare benefits