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Table 4 Trend in child undernutrition in the Karnali Zone of Nepal after controlling for confounders*, 2009-2015

From: The impact of unconditional child cash grant on child malnutrition and its immediate and underlying causes in five districts of the Karnali Zone, Nepal – A trend analysis

Variables 2009 (Ref.) Dolpa Jumla Mugu Humla Kalikot Karnali Zone
   AOR(95%CI) AOR(95%CI) AOR(95%CI) AOR(95%CI) AOR(95%CI) AOR(95%CI)
   2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015
Stunting# 1 0.82 (0.63-1.08) 0.54*** (0.43-0.69) 1.05 (0.75-1.46) 0.78 (0.59-1.05) 0.57*** (0.44-0.75) 0.53** (0.36-0.79) 0.69* (0.54-0.87) * 0.78 (0.60-1.02) 0.90 (0.66-1.21) 0.90 (0.69-1.17) 0.75*** (0.66-0.84) 0.68*** (0.61-0.77)
Underweight# 1 0.75* (0.57-0.98) 0.50*** (0.38-0.64) 0.73 (0.53-1.01) 0.62** (0.47-0.83) 0.73* (0.57-0.94) 0.63* (0.43-0.92) 0.63*** (0.50-0.80) 0.60*** (0.46-0.78) 0.71* (0.54-0.95) 0.54*** (0.42-0.69) 0.71*** (0.63-0.80) 0.57*** (0.51-0.64)
Wasting# 1 0.82 (0.52-1.30) 0.66 (0.43-1.01) 0.58* (0.35-0.95) 0.41*** (0.26-0.65) 1.49* (1.01-2.21) 1.52 (0.84-2.76) 0.52* (0.36-0.76) * 0.54** (0.36-0.82) 0.91 (0.59-1.39) 0.41*** (0.27-0.62) 0.77** (0.65-0.93) 0.52*** (0.43-0.63)
   ( 95%CI) Aβ( 95%CI) Aβ( 95%CI) Aβ( 95%CI) Aβ( 95%CI) Aβ( 95%CI)
HAZ 0 0.20* (0.02-0.38) 0.58*** (0.42-0.75) -0.11 (-0.33-0.11) 0.18 (-0.02-0.37) 0.35*** (0.17-0.53) 0.42** (0.16-0.69) 0.21* (0.04-0.39) 0.30** (0.11-0.49) 0.12 (-0.08-0.32) 0.13 (-0.05-0.30) 0.21*** (0.13-0.29) 0.36*** (0.27-0.44)
WAZ 0 0.28*** (0.15-0.42) 0.55*** (0.42-0.67) 0.26** (0.09-0.43) 0.41*** (0.26-0.57) 0.19** (0.05-0.32) 0.23* (0.03-0.43) 0.30*** (0.16-0.43) 0.38*** (0.24-0.53) 0.19* (0.03-0.34) 0.39*** (0.26-0.53) 0.26*** (0.20-0.32) 0.43*** (0.37-0.50)
WHZ 0 0.24** (0.10-0.39) 0.28*** (0.14-0.41) 0.44*** (0.26-0.61) 0.42*** (0.26-0.57) -0.07 (-0.21-0.07) -0.10 (-0.30-0.10) 0.30*** (0.17-0.42) 0.34*** (0.20-0.47) 0.12 (-0.04-0.28) 0.43*** (0.30-0.57) 0.20*** (0.14-0.27) 0.31*** (0.24-0.37)
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, adjusted linear regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, HAZ Z scores for height-for-age, WAZ Z scores for weight-for-age, WHZ Z scores for weight-height
  2. #Two-level or three-level GLMMs with binominal link; Two-level or three-level GLMMs with normal link
  3. ^Adjusted for child age and gender, father and mother’s educational attainment, household wealth index, caste/ethnicity, expected food shortage, family size, and clustering of children within wards. *p<0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001