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Table 6 Summary characteristics of studies in the meta-analysis to show assessment of risk of bias of the included studies the prevalence Gestational diabetes mellitus in Africa, 2013–2018

From: Prevalence and determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus in Africa based on the updated international diagnostic criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

S.N Author, year of publication Sample of pregnant women representative? Sampling
Frame representative?
Random or census selection? Response rate ≥75%? Data from subjects? Acceptable diagnostic criteria? Reliable testing for BG? Same method for all? Proper gestational age GDM test? Proper calculation prevalence Total ‘Yes’ Overall risk of bias
1 Niyibizi et al., 2016 [13] Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No 5 High
2 Sagheer and Hamdi , 2018 [56] Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 Low
3 Ogoudjobi et al., 2017 [44] Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 Low
4 Oppong et al., 2015 [45] Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 Low
5 Oriji et.al., 2017 [41] Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 8 Low
6 Agbozo et al., 2018 [39] No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes 9 High
7 Nakabuye et al., 2017 [47] No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 6 Moderate
8 Macaulay et al., 2018 [54] Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 Low
9 Abbey and Kasso , 2018 [40] No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes 4 High
10 Njete et al., 2018 [48] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 10 Low
11 Pastakia et al., 2017 [49] Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 Low
12 Olagbuji et al., 2017 [42] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No 8 Low
13 Munang et al., 2017 [51] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes 8 Low
14 Jao et al., 2013 [53] No No Yes NR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 7 Moderate
15 Djomhou et al., 2016 [52] No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No 4 High
16 Olagbuji et al., 2015 [17] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 10 Low
17 Ogu et al., 2017 [43] No No No NR No Yes Yes Yes No Yes 4 High
18 Khalil et al, 2017 [57] No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes 7 Moderate
19 Adams and Rheeder, 2017 [15] Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 Low
20 Adoyo et al., 2016 [50] No No No Yes Yes NR NR NR Yes Yes 4 High
21 Mwanri et al., 2014 [11] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 8 Low
22 Asare-Anane et al., 2014 [46] Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes NR 6 Moderate
23 Mathilda et al.,2017 [55] Yes Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No 4 High
  1. GDM Gestational diabetes mellitus, NR Not Reported