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Table 1 Background characteristics of married non-pregnant women, Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016 (n = 6854)

From: Individual and community level associates of contraceptive use in Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed effects analysis

Individual Variables Categories Frequency %
Age in 5-year groups 15–19 500 7.3
20–24 1343 19.6
25–29 1668 24.3
30–34 1357 19.8
35–39 1120 16.3
40–44 607 8.9
45–49 259 3.8
Highest educational level
  No education 3891 56.8
Primary 1922 28.0
Secondary 644 9.4
Higher 397 5.8
Religion
  Christians 3840 56.0
Muslin 2927 42.7
Other 87 1.3
Number of children 5 and under in household
  None 1446 21.1
1–2 4696 68.5
> = 3 712 10.4
Number of living children categories
  None 665 9.7
1–4 4154 60.6
5–8 1879 27.4
> = 9 156 2.3
Births in last 3 years category
  None 2539 37.0
one birth 3669 53.5
more than two births 646 9.4
Wealth index combined
  Poor 3077 44.9
Middle 971 14.2
Rich 2806 40.9
Respondent currently working
  No 4674 68.2
Yes 2180 31.8
Exposure to mass media
  No 4045 59.0
Yes 2809 41.0
History of terminated pregnancy
  No 6165 89.9
Yes 689 10.1
Heard family planning through media
  No 4764 69.5
Yes 2090 30.5
Visited by fieldworker in last 12 months
  No 4837 70.6
Yes 2017 29.4
Did fieldworker talk about family planning
  No 787 36.5
Yes 1230 63.5
Visited health facility in the last 12 months
  No 3322 48.5
Yes 3532 51.5
At health facility, told of family planning
  No 2156 61.0
Yes 1376 39.0
History of smoking Cigarette
  No 6786 99.0
Yes 68 1.0
Covered by health insurance
  No 6572 95.9
Yes 282 4.1
Husband’s desire for children
  Both want same 2781 40.6
Husband wants more 1775 25.9
Husband wants fewer 465 6.8
Don’t know 1820 26.6
Husband/partner’s education level
  No education 3045 44.4
Primary 2213 32.3
Secondary 868 12.7
Higher 728 10.6
Husband/partner’s occupation (grouped)
  Did not work 681 9.9
Clerical/sales/services/skilled labor 1572 22.9
Professional/technical/managerial 4601 67.1
Person who usually decides on respondent’s health care
  Respondent alone 1242 18.1
Respondent and husband/partner 4343 63.4
Husband/partner alone 1234 18.0
Someone else 27 0.4
Other 8 0.1
Current use of contraceptive methods
  No 4461 65.1
Yes 2393 34.9