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Table 2 Sociodemographic Characteristics of Participants by Gender in Lilongwe, Malawi, June–August 2017

From: The gender gap and healthcare: associations between gender roles and factors affecting healthcare access in Central Malawi, June–August 2017

  Total (N = 200) Women (N = 102) Men (N = 98) P-value*
Region, n (%)     1.00
 Central Malawi 176 (88.0) 90 (88.2) 86 (87.8)  
 Other 24 (22.0) 12 (11.8) 12 (12.2)  
Tribal Group, n (%)     0.41
 Chewa 137 (68.5) 74 (72.5) 63 (64.3)  
 Ngoni 38 (19.0) 16 (15.7) 22 (22.4)  
 Other 25 (12.5) 12 (11.8) 13 (13.3)  
Religion, n (%)     0.72
 Protestant 117 (58.5) 60 (58.8) 57 (58.2)  
Roman Catholicism 46 (23.0) 26 (25.5) 20 (20.4)  
 Traditional Tribal 25 (12.5) 12 (11.8) 13 (13.3)  
 Islam 9 (4.5) 3 (2.9) 6 (6.1)  
 Other 3 (1.5) 1 (1.0) 2 (2.0)  
Marital Status, n (%)     < 0.001
 Married 165 (82.5) 78 (76.5) 87 (88.9)  
 Separated 13 (6.5) 10 (9.8) 3 (3.0)  
 Widowed 10 (5.0) 10 (9.8) 0 (0.0)  
 Single 12 (6.0) 4 (3.9) 8 (8.2)  
Employment Status, n (%)     < 0.001
 Self-employed/Business 178 (89.0) 94 (92.2) 84 (85.7)  
 Employed 12 (6.0) 1 (1.0) 11 (11.2)  
 Unemployed 2 (1.0) 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Never Worked 6 (3.0) 5 (4.9) 1 (1.0)  
 Other 2 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.0)  
Education Level, n (%)     0.001
 None 22 (11.0) 17 (16.7) 5 (5.1)  
 Primary School 123 (61.5) 67 (65.7) 56 (57.1)  
 Secondary School 52 (26.0) 17 (16.7) 35 (35.7)  
 Higher Education 3 (1.5) 1 (1.0) 2 (2.0)  
Spouse Employment, n (%)     0.002
 Self-employed/Business 148 (89.2) 67 (84.8) 81 (93.1)  
 Employed 9 (5.4) 9 (11.4) 0 (0.0)  
 Unemployed 4 (2.4) 1 (1.3) 3 (3.4)  
 Never Worked 4 (2.4) 1 (1.3) 3 (3.4)  
 Other 1 (0.6) 1 (1.3) 0 (0.0)  
Spouse Education Level, n (%)     < 0.001
 None 16 (9.6) 2 (2.5) 14 (16.1)  
 Primary School 115 (69.3) 52 (65.8) 63 (72.4)  
 Secondary School 34 (20.5) 24 (30.4) 10 (11.5)  
 Higher Education 1 (0.6) 1 (1.3) 0 (0.0)  
Age, year, Mean (SD) 41.7 (12.1) 41.4 (12.2) 42.0 (12.1) 0.74
Spouse Age, year, Mean (SD) 41.3 (12.4) 45.9 (12.4) 37.0 (10.9) < 0.001
Transport Time, hour, Median (IQR) 3.0 (2.0, 6.0) 3.0 (2.0, 6.0) 3.0 (2.0, 6.0) 0.82
Income (MWK)a, Median (IQR) 120,000 (60,000, 300,000) 114,000 (60,000, 189,000) 180,000 (84,250, 480,000) 0.24
Spouse’s Income (MWK)a, Median (IQR) 125,000 (60,000, 300,000) 140,000 (80,000, 360,000) 122,500 (58,750, 300,000) 0.75
Number of Children, Mean (SD) 4.1 (2.1) 4.3 (2.0) 3.9 (2.2) 0.15
Number in Household, Mean (SD) 5.7 (2.0) 5.7 (1.7) 5.6 (2.2) 0.69
GEM Raw Score, Mean (SD) 17.2 (2.9) 16.8 (2.8) 17.7 (2.9) 0.03
GEM Score Level, n (%)     0.004
 High 71 (35.5) 26 (25.5) 45 (45.9)  
 Low 129 (64.5) 76 (74.5) 53 (54.1)  
  1. Missing values: Spouse Employment = 34, Spouse Education = 34
  2. *P-values were calculated by chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, independent sample t-test, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test
  3. aMWK indicates Malawian kwacha (1 US Dollar = 765.29 MWK as of July 16, 2019)
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