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Table 2 Mixed effects results on factors associated with full immunization in 12–23 months children in Benin

From: Maternal healthcare utilization and full immunization coverage among 12–23 months children in Benin: a cross sectional study using population-based data

Variables Model 0 Model I Model II Model III Model IV
  aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
ANC visits
 0   0.09*** (0.07–0.13)    0.11*** (0.08–0.15)
 1–3   1    1
 4+   1.42** (1.09–1.85)    1.20 (0.91–1.59)
Delivery assistance
 By TBA/Others   0.46*** (0.34–0.63)    0.55*** (0.40–0.77)
 By SBA/Health professional   1    1
PNC time
 No   0.47*** (0.35–0.62)    0.49*** (0.36–0.67)
  < 24 h   1    1
  > =1 day   1.04 (0.57–1.90)    1.07 (0.58–1.97)
Type of delivery
 Virginal birth    1   1
 Cesarean section    1.07 (0.55–2.10)   0.56 (0.29–1.08)
Marital status
 Married    1   1
 Cohabiting    1.13 (0.84–1.53)   1.37 (0.99–1.90)
Occupational status
 Not Working    0.71* (0.54–0.92)   0.78 (0.58–1.05)
 Working    1   1
Religion
 Christianity    1   1
 Islam    0.91 (0.61–1.35)   0.95 (0.61–1.47)
 Other    057*** (0.41–0.79)   0.71* (0.51–1.00)
Mother’s education
 No education    1   1
 Primary    1.06 (0.77–1.48)   0.99 (0.70–1.40)
 Secondary/tertiary    1.70* (1.05–2.76)   1.16 (0.70–1.92)
Partner’s education
 No education   1   1
 Primary    1.36 (0.99–1.86)   1.06 (0.75–1.49)
 Secondary/tertiary    2.16*** (1.47–3.18)   1.55* (1.03–2.35)
Ethnicity
 Adja    0.69 (0.44–1.09)   1.21 (0.57–2.57)
 Bariba    0.89 (0.52–1.53)   1.58 (0.70–3.57)
 Dendi    0.48* (0.25–0.93)   0.72 (0.29–1.82)
 Fon    1   1
 Yoa and Lokpa    1.08 (0.44–2.61)   1.56 (0.48–5.02)
 Betamaribe    0.73 (0.42–1.29)   2.05 (0.84–4.98)
 Peulh    0.13*** (0.08–0.23)   0.70 (0.31–1.59)
 Yoruba    0.62 (0.38–1.00)   1.17 (0.64–2.14)
Parity
 One birth    1.99*** (1.44–2.75)   1.62** (1.14–2.30)
 Two births    0.94 (0.71–1.25)   0.89 (0.65–1.21)
 Three births    1.17 (0.87–1.58)   1.20 (0.86–1.67)
 Four or more births    1   1
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
 Not at all    1   1
 Less than once a week    1.14 (0.42–3.09)   1.14 (041–3.18)
 At least once a week    0.62 (0.22–1.77)   0.64 (0.22–1.86)
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all    1   1
 Less than once a week    1.20 (0.90–1.61)   1.06 (0.77–1.46)
 At least once a week    1.27 (0.96–1.69)   1.04 (0.77–1.42)
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all    1   1
 Less than once a week    1.17 (0.84–1.63)   1.04 (0.73–1.50)
 At least once a week    2.11** (1.34–3.30)   1.37 (0.82–2.29)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest     1 1
 Poorer    1.78*** (1.36–2.33) 1.14 (0.83–1.55)
 Middle     3.29*** (2.40–4.52) 1.81** (1.26–2.59)
 Richer     3.97*** (2.72–5.79) 1.77* (1.15–2.72)
 Richest     8.46*** (4.74–15.10) 2.44* (1.25–4.77)
Place of residence
 Urban     1.61** (1.13–2.28) 1.43* (1.02–2.00)
 Rural     1 1
Region
 Alibori     1 1
 Atacora     1.39 (0.76–2.56) 0.94 (0.45–1.95)
 Atlantic     2.14* (1.08–4.27) 0.67 (0.26–1.75)
 Borgou     0.65 (0.37–1.14) 1.22 (0.67–2.20)
 Collines     2.18* (1.11–4.30) 0.70 (0.29–1.68)
 Couffo     1.05 (0.56–1.96) 0.47 (0.16–1.39)
 Donga     1.79 (0.85–3.78) 1.52 (0.66–3.51)
 Littoral     1.96 (0.69–5.56) 0.74 (0.23–2.44)
 Mono     4.78*** (2.00–11.39) 1.52 (0.45–5.13)
 Oueme     3.76** (1.67–8.46) 1.29 (0.46–3.66)
 Plateau     0.92 (0.48–1.78) 0.41 (0.16–1.04)
 Zou     2.59** (1.33–5.04) 0.94 (0.36–2.43)
Random effect result
 PSU variance (95% CI) 2.15 (1.63–2.82) 0.72 (0.47–1.11) 1.12 (0.80–1.56) 0.99 (0.70–1.40) 0.56 (0.34–0.92
 ICC 0.3949477 0.1803875 0.2531715 0.231711 0.145173
 LR Test Chi-square = 416.61, p = 0.0000 Chi-square = 55.42, p = 0.0000 Chi-square = 145.95, p = 0.0000 Chi-square = 134.07, p = 0.0000 Chi-square = 35.60, p = 0.0000
 Wald chi-square   556.67*** 266.05*** 214.86*** 594.80***
 Model fitness      
 Log-likelihood − 1565.0389 − 1241.965 − 1417.3607 − 1453.5992 −1173.6338
 AIC 3134.078 2497.93 2888.721 2943.198 2443.268
 N 4156 4156 4156 4156 4156
 Number of clusters 547 547 547 547 547
  1. aOR adjusted Odds Ratio, 95% confidence intervals in brackets, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001;1 = reference category
  2. Source: 2018 Benin Demographic and Health Survey