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Table 6 Exploratory factor analysis of the Igbo-HADS [obtained from participants from rural Nigerian communities involved in the cross-sectional validity testing on 22 August 2014]

From: Detecting anxiety and depression among people with limited literacy living with chronic low back pain in Nigeria: adaptation and validation of the hospital anxiety and depression scale

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(A2) Something awful .744  
(A7) Sudden panic .666  
(A6)Restlessness .651  
(A3) Worrying thoughts .628  
(A1) Wound up .623  
(D4) Lost interest in appearance .559  
(A5) Butterflies in the stomach .510  
(D7) Slowed down .473  
(D2) Funny side of things   .675
(A4) Sit at ease and feel relaxed   .542
(D1) Still enjoy things I used to enjoy   .438
(D6) Enjoy book, radio, tv   .403
(D5) Look forward with enjoyment to things   .392
(D3) Feel cheerful   .378
KMO = 0.82   
Χ2 = 617.22***   
  1. Only factor loadings above 0.3 are shown; KMO = Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy; χ2 = Bartlett’s test of sphericity tested with chi-square ***p < 0.001; Extraction Method: Principal Axis Factoring; Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization; Rotation converged in 3 iterations.