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Table 5 Associations between adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, and sociodemographic characteristics, May to July 2018, Nsukka, Nigeria

From: Adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress among higher education students in Southeast Nigeria: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

  ACEs exposure   Psychological distress  
Yes No   Yes No  
(n = 167) (n = 36) *p-value (n = 111) (n = 92) *p-value
n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Age
 18–20 years 90 (53.9) 22 (61.1) 0.442 62 (55.9) 50 (54.3) 0.347
 21–24 years 50 (29.9) 7 (19.4)   34 (30.6) 23 (25.0)  
  ≥ 25 years 27 (16.2) 7 (19.4)   15 (13.5) 19 (20.7)  
Gender
 Male 63 (37.7) 20 (55.6) 0.048 42 (37.8) 41 (44.6) 0.332
 Female 104 (62.3) 16 (44.4)   69 (62.2) 51 (55.4)  
Academic level
 100 Level 49 (29.3) 10 (27.8) 0.958 26 (23.4) 33 (35.9) 0.210
 200 Level 41 (24.6) 9 (25.0)   31 (27.9) 19 (20.7)  
 300 Level 54 (32.3) 13 (36.1)   40 (12.6) 17 (14.1)  
 400 Level 23 (13.8) 4 (11.1)   14 (12.6) 13 (14.1)  
Birth order
 1st child 44 (26.3) 10 (27.8) 0.934 28 (25.2) 26 (28.3) 0.156
 2nd child 44 (26.3) 9 (25.0)   31 (27.9) 22 (23.9)  
 3rd child 14 (13.2) 2 (5.60)   13 (11.7) 3 (3.3)  
  ≥ 4th child 32 (19.8) 6 (16.7)   17 (15.3) 21 (22.8)  
 Last child 33 (19.8) 9 (25.0)   22 (19.8) 20 (21.7)  
Parental education
 No formal education 39 (23.4) 6 (16.7) 0.038 31 (27.9) 14 (15.2) 0.027
 Primary education 31 (18.6) 6 (16.6)   24 (21.6) 13 (14.1)  
 Secondary education 68 (40.7) 10 (27.8)   38 (34.2) 40 (43.5)  
 Tertiary education 29 (17.4) 14 (38.9)   18 (16.2) 25 (27.2)  
Parental income
 Low income 63 (37.7) 14 (38.9) 0.975 39 (35.1) 38 (41.3) 0.040
 Middle 64 (38.3) 14 (38.9)   51 (45.9) 27 (29.3)  
 High income 40 (24.0) 8 (22.2)   21 (18.9) 27 (29.3)  
  1. Note. *p-values for the chi-square test