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Table 1 Descriptive data on pregnancy and birth characteristics

From: Pregnancy complications, substance abuse, and prenatal care predict birthweight in adolescent mothers

  Adolescent group
n = 63
Adult group
n = 35
t/X² p-value Larger cohort studies
Characteristics
Maternal age at birth (years) 18.6 ± 2.0 29.8 ± 2.7 -21.2 < 0.001  
Gender of child    2.904 .088  
  female 49 % 31 %    48.72 %5
  male 51 % 67 %    51.27 %5
Pregnancy and birth
Number of prenatal care appointments 12 ± 3.61 12 ± 1.94 .530 .597 16.5 ± 4.7111.345
Detection of pregnancy (gestational week) 8.73 ± 5.06 6.31 ± 2.11 3.251 .002  
Number of medical complications during pregnancy 0.56 ± 0.74 0.20 ± 0.41 3.083 .003  
  Gestational diabetes 3.2 % 2.9 %    2.0 %2, 5.90 %5
  Pre-eclampsia 4.8 % 0 %    3.8 %4,, 3.0 %1
  Premature labour 7.9 % 0 %    1.87 %5
  Antepartum bleeding 4.8 % 5.7 %    5,3 %6, 1.21 %5
  Cervical insufficiency 12.7 % 2.9 %    1.32 %5
  Urinary stasis and urinary tract infections 7.9 % 0 %    0.1 %1, 0.34 %5
  Placental insufficiency 6.3 % 0 %    0.78 %5
  Hyperemesis gravidarum 3.2 % 5.7 %    0.29 %5, 0.8 %7
  Gestational hypertension 1.6 % 0 %    1.33 %5
  Intrauterine growth restriction 3.2 % 0 %    
  Imminent abortion 0 % 2.9 %    
Birthweight (g) 3202.14
± 544.50
3517.57
± 485.33
-2.85 .005 3,457 (± 497)6
Low birthweight (LBW) (≤ 2,500 g) 11.1 % 0 % 4.19 .041 4.3 %3, 7.03 %5
Umbilical cord pH 7.27 ± 0.08 7.27 ± 0.06 − 0.18 0.859  
Mode of delivery    1.34 0.512  
  Spontaneous 71.4 % 62.9 %    68.02 %5
  Cesarean section 23.8 % 34.3 %    24.70 %5
  Instrumental vaginal 4.8 % 2.9 %    7.21 %5
  1. 1Leppalahti et al., 2013: Based on 51,142 Finish women aged 25–29 years[7] 2Huy et al., 2012: Based on 186,818 German women aged 25–29 years [26] 3Rebhan et al., 2009: Based on 3,092 German women (> 18years) [27] 4 Abalos et al., 2013: Based on 1,093,782 European women [28] 5IQTIG Institute for Quality Assurance and Transparency in Health Care, federal evaluation for the year of registration 2017 - obstetrics, based on 761,481 German mothers [29] 6McCormack, R., et al., 2008, based on 21,685 women aged 18–35 years[30] 7Vikanes et al., 2008, based on 23,640 mothers from Western Europe [31] 8Diemert et al., 2016, based on 200 German women > 18 years (Exclusion obstetrical risk factors) [32] - In most cases, the larger cohort studies also included prematurely born infants or infants with congenital anomalies.