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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population in Jiangsu Province from 2008 to 2018

From: Trends and socioeconomic factors in smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese people: evidence from the 2008–2018 National Health Service Surveys in Jiangsu Province

Variable Total
N = 24,939
Urban
n = 10,684 (42.84%)
Rural
n = 14,255 (57.10%)
P value
Smoking
 No 18,967 (76.05%) 8175 (76.52%) 10,792 (75.71%)  
 Yes 5972 (23.95%) 2509 (23.48%) 3463 (24.29%)  
Smoking quantity     ***
 Low (light smoking) 1435 (5.75%) 644 (6.03%) 791 (5.55%)  
 Moderate 1155 (4.63%) 517 (4.84%) 638 (4.48%)  
 High (heavy smoking) 3382 (13.56%) 1348 (12.62%) 2034 (14.27%)  
Drinking
 No 19,131 (76.71%) 8152 (76.30%) 10,979 (77.02%)  
 Yes 5808 (23.29%) 2532 (23.70%) 3276 (22.98%)  
Drinking quantity     ***
 Non-excessive drinking 4932 (19.80%) 2226 (20.83%) 2712 (19.02%)  
 Excessive drinking 873 (3.49%) 306 (2.86%) 564 (3.96%)  
Smoking and drinking
 No 21,595 (86.59%) 9233 (86.42%) 12,362 (86.72%)  
 Yes 3344 (13.41%) 1451 (13.58%) 1893 (13.28%)  
Demographic factor
 Age, years     ***
  15–45 9954 (39.91%) 3905 (36.55%) 6049 (42.43%)  
  46–59 7252 (29.08%) 2900 (27.14%) 4352 (30.53%)  
   ≥ 60 7733 (31.01%) 3879 (36.31%) 3854 (27.04%)  
 Sex
  Male 12,200 (48.92%) 5211 (48.77%) 6989 (49.03%)  
  Female 12,739 (51.08%) 5473 (51.23%) 7266 (50.97%)  
 Number of siblings     ***
   ≤ 2 6907 (27.70%) 3470 (32.48%) 3437 (24.11%)  
  3 or 4 10,738 (43.06%) 4705 (44.04%) 6033 (42.32%)  
   ≥ 5 7294 (29.25%) 2509 (23.48%) 4785 (33.57%)  
 Marital status     *
  Unmarried 2520 (10.10%) 1089 (10.19%) 1431 (10.04%)  
  Married 20,516 (82.26%) 8727 (81.68%) 11,789 (82.70%)  
  Divorced/widowed/other 1903 (7.63%) 868 (8.12%) 1035 (7.26%)  
 Social health insurance
  No 862 (3.46%) 394 (3.69%) 468 (3.28%)  
  Yes 24,077 (96.54%) 10,290 (96.31%) 13,787 (96.72%)  
Socioeconomic status
 Income level     ***
  Very low 5522 (22.14%) 657 (6.15%) 4865 (34.13%)  
  Low 4518 (18.12%) 1291 (12.08%) 3227 (22.64%)  
  Middle 4921 (19.73%) 2233 (20.90%) 2688 (18.86%)  
  High 5535 (22.19%) 3291 (30.80%) 2244 (15.74%)  
  Very high 4443 (17.82%) 3212 (30.06%) 1231 (8.64%)  
 Education     ***
  Primary school 8327 (33.39%) 2256 (21.12%) 6071 (42.59%)  
  Junior school 8564 (34.34%) 3393 (31.76%) 5171 (36.27%)  
  High school 4711 (18.89%) 2557 (23.93%) 2154 (15.11%)  
  University or higher 3337 (13.38%) 2478 (23.19%) 859 (6.03%)  
 Employment status     ***
  Employed 16,521 (66.25%) 5369 (50.25%) 11,152 (78.23%)  
  Retired 3926 (15.74%) 3474 (32.52%) 452 (3.17%)  
  Unemployed 4492 (18.01%) 1841 (17.23%) 2651 (18.60%)  
 Type of occupation     ***
  Unskilled labor 5236 (21.00%) 3979 (37.24%) 1257 (8.82%)  
  Skilled labor 14,078 (56.45%) 4154 (38.88%) 9924 (69.62%)  
  Other or unemployed 5625 (22.56%) 2551 (23.88%) 3074 (21.56%)  
 Poor or low-security household     ***
  No 24,036 (96.38%) 10,407 (97.41%) 13,629 (95.61%)  
  Yes 903 (3.62%) 277 (2.59%) 626 (4.39%)  
Health related factor
 Chronic disease     ***
  No 17,048 (68.36%) 6706 (62.77%) 10,342 (72.55%)  
  Yes 7891 (31.64%) 3978 (37.23%) 3913 (27.45%)  
 Multiple chronic diseases     ***
  No 23,067 (92.49%) 9664 (90.45%) 13,403 (94.02%)  
  Yes 1872 (7.51%) 1020 (9.55%) 852 (5.98%)  
 EQ-5D
  Complete health 20,721 (83.09%) 8829 (82.64%) 11,892 (83.42%)  
  Incomplete health 4218 (16.91%) 1855 (17.36%) 2363 (16.58%)  
 Health status     ***
  Poor (0–40) 345 (1.39%) 136 (1.27%) 209 (1.46%)  
  Moderate (41–60) 2388 (9.58%) 1052 (9.85%) 1336 (9.37%)  
  Good (41–80) 9910 (39.74%) 4542 (42.51%) 5368 (37.66%)  
  Excellent (81–100) 12,296 (49.30%) 4954 (46.37%) 7342 (51.50%)  
 Physical examination     ***
  No 13,297 (53.32%) 4557 (42.65%) 8740 (61.31%)  
  Yes 11,642 (46.68%) 6127 (57.35%) 5515 (38.69%)  
 Physical exercise (no. times per week)     ***
  0 15,898 (63.75%) 4792 (44.85%) 11,106 (77.91%)  
  1 or 2 1858 (7.45%) 1104 (10.33%) 754 (5.29%)  
  3–5 2304 (9.24%) 1346 (12.60%) 958 (6.72%)  
   ≥ 6 4879 (19.56%) 3442 (32.22%) 1437 (10.08%)  
Wave     ***
  2008 5987 (24.01%) 1385 (12.96%) 4602 (32.28%)  
  2013 9194 (36.87%) 4208 (39.39%) 4986 (34.98%)  
  2018 9758 (39.13%) 5091 (47.65%) 4667 (32.74%)  
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  2. Poor or low-security households are low-income groups subsidized by the government
  3. Abbreviation: EQ-5D European Quality of Life Scale – 5 Dimensions