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Table 3 Results of regression analysis of smoking rate and quantity in Jiangsu province from 2008 to 2018

From: Trends and socioeconomic factors in smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese people: evidence from the 2008–2018 National Health Service Surveys in Jiangsu Province

Variable Smoking Light smoking Moderate smoking Heavy smoking
OR 95% CI RRR 95% CI RRR 95% CI RRR 95% CI
Demographic factor
 Age, years (ref: 15–45)
  46–59 1.43*** (1.29,1.58) 0.34*** (0.28,0.40) 0.80*** (0.68,0.95) 4.92*** (4.27,5.68)
   ≥ 60 1.43*** (1.25,1.64) 0.25*** (0.19,0.33) 0.58*** (0.45,0.75) 5.40*** (4.52,6.45)
 Sex (ref: male)
  Female 0.02*** (0.01,0.02) 0.18*** (0.01,0.02) 0.01*** (0.01,0.02) 0.01*** (0.01,0.02)
 Number of siblings (ref: 1 or 2)
  3 or 4 0.99 (0.90,1.09) 0.84* (0.70,1.01) 1.04 (0.88,1.24) 1.05 (0.93,1.17)
   ≥ 5 1.02 (0.91,1.11) 1.07 (0.90,1.30) 0.86 (0.71,1.04) 0.92 (0.81,1.03)
 Marital status (ref: unmarried)
  Married 2.56*** (2.21,2.97) 1.24** (1.03,1.50) 10.07*** (6.01,15.58) 4.53*** (3.41,6.03)
  Divorced/widowed/other 3.27*** (2.64,4.04) 1.77*** (1.24,2.53) 12.41*** (7.40,20.84) 5.13*** (3.69,7.13)
 Place of residence (ref: urban)
  Rural 0.70*** (0.64,0.77) 0.78*** (0.67,0.90) 0.64*** (0.54,0.75) 0.70*** (0.62,0.79)
 Social health insurance (ref: no)
  Yes 0.70*** (0.57,0.86) 0.58*** (0.43,0.77) 0.72* (0.51,1.02) 0.70** (0.53,0.92)
Socioeconomic status
 Income (ref: very low)
  Low 1.02 (0.90,1.15) 1.03 (0.84,1.28) 0.99 (0.79,1.23) 1.02 (0.88,1.18)
  Middle 1.02 (0.90,1.16) 1.04 (0.83,1.29) 0.89 (0.71,1.13) 1.03 (0.88,1.20)
  High 1.06 (0.93,1.21) 0.96 (0.77,1.20) 1.06 (0.84,1.33) 1.1 (0.94,1.29)
  Very high 1.18** (1.02,1.40) 1 (0.78,1.27) 1.26* (0.98,1.62) 1.28*** (1.07,1.53)
 Education (ref: primary school)
  Junior school 0.85*** (0.77,0.94) 1.03 (0.84,1.26) 1.19* (0.99,1.44) 0.83*** (0.74,0.93)
  High school 0.68*** (0.60,0.77) 1.11 (0.89,1.39) 0.80** (0.63,1.00) 0.56*** (0.48,0.65)
  University or higher 0.30*** (0.25,0.36) 0.55*** (0.42,0.72) 0.24*** (0.17,0.33) 0.18*** (0.14,0.23)
 Employment status (ref: employed)
  Retired 0.49*** (0.43,0.57) 0.52*** (0.38,0.72) 0.48*** (0.36,0.64) 0.54*** (0.46,0.64)
  Unemployed 0.51*** (0.42,0.63) 0.33*** (0.23,0.48) 0.57*** (0.39,0.83) 0.60*** (0.46,0.77)
 Type of occupation (ref: unskilled labor)
  Skilled labor 0.83*** (0.75,0.92) 0.87* (0.74,1.02) 0.80** (0.67,0.96) 0.87* (0.76,1.00)
  Unemployed or other 1.03 (0.85,1.24) 0.82 (0.61,1.10) 1.04 (0.76,1.46) 1.16 (0.93,1.46)
 Poor or low-security household (ref: no)
  Yes 1.05 (0.86,1.29) 0.89 (0.61,1.30) 0.83 (0.55,1.25) 1.21+ (0.96,1.53)
Health-related factor
 Chronic disease (ref: no)
  Yes 0.94 (0.86,1.03) 0.93 (0.77,1.11) 1.02 (0.86,1.21) 0.95 (0.85,1.06)
 Multiple chronic diseases (ref: no)
  Yes 0.78*** (0.67,0.92) 0.99 (0.71,1.38) 0.83 (0.61,1.11) 0.75*** (0.63,0.90)
 EQ-5D (ref: complete health)
  Incomplete health 0.81*** (0.72,0.91) 0.98 (0.78,1.23) 0.94 (0.76,1.16) 0.75*** (0.65,0.85)
 Health status (ref: excellent)
  Poor (0–40) 0.57*** (0.39,0.82) 0.81 (0.39,1.70) 0.56 (0.27,1.16) 0.49*** (0.32,0.77)
  Moderate (41–60) 0.95 (0.81,1.09) 1 (0.74,1.35) 0.96 (0.73,1.27) 0.93 (0.78,1.11)
  Good (41–80) 1.08 (0.99,1.17) 1.01 (0.88,1.16) 0.9 (0.78,1.05) 1.15*** (1.03,1.27)
 Physical examination (ref: no)
  Yes 0.91** (0.84,0.98) 1 (0.88,1.13) 0.92 (0.80,1.06) 0.90** (0.81,0.99)
 Physical exercise, no. of times per week (ref: ≥6)
  0 1.35*** (1.21,1.50) 1.12 (0.94,1.34) 1.24** (1.02,1.50) 1.47*** (1.29,1.68)
  1 or 2 1.24** (1.05,1.46) 1.05 (0.82,1.35) 1.31* (0.99,1.73) 1.25** (1.00,1.56)
  3–5 0.94 (0.81,1.10) 0.87 (0.68,1.11) 0.97 (0.74,1.27) 0.94 (0.77,1.14)
Wave (ref: 2008)
  2013 1.09 (0.98,1.21) 3.29*** (2.67,4.04) 1.40*** (1.14,1.71) 0.62*** (0.55,0.71)
  2018 0.98 (0.88,1.10) 3.10*** (2.52,3.83) 1.33*** (1.08,1.63) 0.52*** (0.46,0.60)
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, EQ-5D European Quality of Life Scale – 5 Dimensions, OR odds ratio, ref. reference, RRR relative risk ratio