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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between HL and mortality from 2006 to 2020

From: Association between health literacy and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup No. of studies HR(95%CI) P I2
Total 19 1.25 (1.15–1.35) < 0.001 78.5%
Population
 Elderly 7 1.14 (1.04–1.25) < 0.001 80.6%
 Heart failure 6 1.37 (1.14–1.65) 0.036 57.9%
Design
 Prospective 11 1.20 (1.09–1.32) < 0.001 78.1%
 Retrospective 8 1.30 (1.12–1.50) 0.012 61.3%
Location
 USA 13 1.38 (1.20–1.59) < 0.001 84.3%
 UK 4 1.07 (0.95–1.21) 0.167 40.7%
Time
 Before 2016.12 9 1.40 (1.22–1.61) 0.008 43.2%
 After 2017.1 10 1.11 (1.03–1.20) < 0.001 71.7%
HL questionnaire
 Model 1
  S-TOFHLA* 5 1.38 (1.05–1.83) < 0.001 86.9%
  BHLS 5 1.36 (1.05–1.77) 0.017 66.6%
  REALM 2 1.66 (1.28–2.14) 0.585 0.0%
  NVS 1 1.08 (0.95–1.22)
  Others 6 1.14 (1.00–1.31) 0.051 54.6%
 Model 2
  S-TOFHLA 4 1.52 (1.23–1.89) 0.126 47.5%
  BHLS 5 1.36 (1.05–1.77) 0.017 66.6%
  REALM* 3 1.35 (0.89–2.03) 0.001 85.9%
  NVS 1 1.08 (0.95–1.22)
  Others 6 1.14 (1.00–1.31) 0.051 54.6%
 Model 3
  S-TOFHLA 4 1.52 (1.23–1.89) 0.126 47.5%
  BHLS 5 1.36 (1.05–1.77) 0.017 66.6%
  REALM 2 1.66 (1.28–2.14) 0.585 0.0%
  NVS* 2 1.02 (0.91–1.14) 0.182 43.7%
  Others 6 1.14 (1.00–1.31) 0.051 54.6%
 Model 4
  S-TOFHLA 4 1.52 (1.23–1.89) 0.126 47.5%
  BHLS 5 1.36 (1.05–1.77) 0.017 66.6%
  REALM 2 1.66 (1.28–2.14) 0.585 0.0%
  NVS 1 1.08 (0.95–1.22)
  Others* 7 1.11 (0.99–1.24) 0.082 46.5%
  1. *represent the tool used in the analysis