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Table 3 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis result of both individual and community-level factors associated with iron supplementation among pregnant women in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Spatial distribution and determinants of iron supplementation among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a spatial and multilevel analysis

Variables Null model Model II
AOR(95%CI)
Model III
AOR(95%CI)
Model IV
AOR(95%CI)
Age
 15–19   1.09 [0.67–1.75]   1.19 [0.74–1.91]
 20–24   1.17 [0.78–1.76]   1.22 [0.82–1.84]
 25–29   1.10 [0.75–1.63]   1.17 [0.79–1.72]
 30–34   0.96 [0.65–1.42]   1.00 [0.68–1.48]
 35–39   0.86 [0.58–1.28]   0.86 [0.58–1.28]
 40–44   0.69 [0.45–1.07]   0.68 [0.44–1.05]
 45–49   1   1
Education
 No education   1   1
 Primary   1.26[1.09–1.46]   1.24 [1.07–1.44]**
 Secondary   1.29[1.01–1.65]   1.27 [0.99–1.63]
 Higher   1.56[1.12–2.18]   1.59 [1.14–2.21]**
Residence
 Rural    1  
 Urban    1.81 [1.42–2.33] 1.20 [0.89–1.61]
Region
 Somali    1 1
 Tigray    9.18 [6.35–13.28] 5.29 [3.68–7.59]**
 Afar    1.75 [1.22–2.51] 1.61 [1.14–2.28]**
 Amhara    3.08 [2.19–4.33] 2.04 [1.45–2.87]**
 Oromia    1.25 [0.89–1.75] 0.80 [0.57–1.12]
 Benishangul-Gumuz    2.37 [1.62–3.46] 1.35 [0.93–1.96]
 SNNPR    1.91 [1.35–2.71] 1.10 [0.78–1.55].
 Gambelia    1.02 [0.68–1.52] 0.72 [0.49–1.06]
 Harari    2.10 [1.39–3.16] 1.44 [0.97–2.16]
 Addis Ababa    1.92 [1.24–2.96] 0.83 [0.54–1.28]
 Dire dawa    2.95 [1.94–4.48] 1.52 [1.02–2.29]*
Wealth index
 Poorest   1   1
 Poorer   1.42 [1.18–170]   1..37 [1.14–1.68]**
 Middle   1.36 [1.11–1.66]   1.30 [1.07–1.63]**
 Richer   1.41 [1.14–1.75]   1.37 [1.10–1.70]**
 Richest   1.40 [1.11–1.77]   1.12 [0.84–1.49]
Community women’s education
 Lower community education   1 1
 Higher community education   1.61 [1.32–1.97] 1.21 [0.99–1.48]
 Occupational status     
 Unemployed   1   1
 Employed   1.18 [1.04–1.33]   1.10 [0.97–1.25]
Perception of the distance to a health facility
 A big problem    1 1
 Not a big problem    1.43 [1.26–1.61] 1.31 [1.15–1.49]**
Parity
 primipara   1   1
 multipara   0.99 [0.83–1.19]   1.02 [0.86–1.22]
Family size
 1–4   1   1
 5–9   1.00 [0.87–1.15]   1.03 [0.89–1.18]
 10+   1.01 [0.77–1.35]   1.10 [0.84–1.44]
ANC visit
 0–3 times   1   1
 4 + times   3.79 [3.32–4.31]   3.59 [3.15–4.09]**
Media exposure
 Not have exposure   1   1
 Have exposure   1.34 [1.15–1.55]   1.28 [1.11–1.49]**
Constant 0.88 [0.80–98] 0.29 [0.19–0.46] 0.24 [0.18–0.31] 0.17 [0.11–0.29]
Model comparison and random effects
 ICC 0.27 [0.24–31]    
 Log likelihood (LL) − 4552.55 − 4206.89 − 4373.57 − 4107.52
 Deviance 9105.1 8413.78 8747.14 8215.04
 PCV Ref 0.46 0.63 0.70
 MOR 3.3(2.7,4.5) 2.03(1.78,2.39) 1.62(1.46,1.85) 1.47(1.34,1.65)
  1. Key: AOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ICC intra-cluster correlation, MOR median odds ratio; 1: reference group; p-value 0.05–0.01 *: p-value < 0.01 **: ANC antenatal care visit