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Table 4 Analysis of the risk factors associated with HBV infection in East Africa

From: Prevalence and predictors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in east Africa: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published from 2005 to 2020

    Analysis of HBV prevalence Analysis of heterogeneity of studies
Risk factor Category Number Proportion%, (95%CI) P value I2, 95%CI P het Model
Age < 20 years 9 4.796 (1.88 to 8.97)   80.6 (64.07 to 89.54) < 0.0001 Random
  > 20 years 9 5.74 (3.52 to 8.46) 0.28 89.27 (81.9 to 93.65) < 0.0001 Random
Gravidity Primigravida 5 2.84 (1.37 to 4.82)   81.6 (57.40 to 92.06) 0.0002 Random
  Multigravida 5 3.84 (3.40 to 4.33) 0.0006* 32.98 (0.00 to 74.58 0.2015 Fixed
Marital status Married 17 5.508 (3.35 to 8.17)   98.91 (98.69 to 99.1) < 0.0001 Random
  Not Married 17 8.644 (5.21 to 12.85) < 0.0001* 96.98 (96.13 to 97.6) < 0.0001 Random
History of STIs Yes 5 7.33 (4.77 to 10.67)   25.7 (0.00 to 70.27) 0.2015 Fixed
  No 5 4.41 (2.79 to 6.39) 0.5858 68.61 (19.22 to 87.8) 0.0126 Random
Education Level Primary & below 11 6.096 (4.42 to 8.02)   83.49 (71.9 to 90.29) < 0.0001 Random
  Secondary & above 11 5.917 (4.374 to 7.676) 0.6434 73.11 (50.84 to 85.3) 0.0001 Random
History of blood transfusion Yes 10 11.057 (5.84 to 17.68)   79.6 (63.2 to 88.72) < 0.0001 Random
  No 10 4.915 (3.492 to 6.567) < 0.0001* 89.5 (82.74 to 93.56) < 0.0001 Random
History of scarification Yes 4 8.102 (4.47 to 12.696)   89.7 (78.79 to 95.0) < 0.0001 Random
  No 4 5.049 (3.318 to 7.120) < 0.0001* 84.4 (65.09 to 93.04) < 0.0001 Fixed
Alcohol use Yes 4 7.37 (3.46to 12.6)   64.88 (0.00 to 88.09) 0.036 Random
  No 4 3.48 (2.55 to 4.63) 0.4703 30.01 (0.00 to 74.53) 0.2322 Fixed
HIV sero-status Positive 6 12.131 (7.92 to 17.52)   12.15 (0.00 to 78.35) 0.3374 Fixed
  Negative 6 5.863 (3.082 to 9.461) 0.0030* 89.81 (80.5 to 94.67) < 0.0001 Random
History of body piecing Yes 3 3.813 (2.41 to 5.70)   59.57 (0.00 to 88.48) 0.0843 Fixed
  No 3 4.24 (2.903 to 5.95) 0.9394 0.00 (0.00 to 92.27) 0.6478 Fixed
History of surgery Yes 7 13.2 (0.003 to 45.2)   99.50 (99.37 to 99.60) < 0.0001 Random
  No 7 4.85 (1.43 to 10.14) < 0.0001* 97.32 (96.0 to 38.20 < 0.0001 Random
No of sexual partners One 6 5.116 (3.124 to 7.566)   89.04 (78.8 to 94.34) < 0.0001 Random
  More than one 6 9.53 (5.509 to 14.512) < 0.0001* 87.36 (74.9 to 93.65) < 0.0001 Random
Employment Formal 9 7.70 (2.38 to 15.69)   95.65 (93.51 to 97.1) < 0.0001 Random
  Non formal 9 10.48 (2.72 to 22.5) 0.333 98.6 (98.12 to 98.93) < 0.0001 Random
Gender Male 13 8.561 (6.66 to 10.675)   93.53 (90.6 to 95.54) < 0.0001 Random
  Female 13 6.986 (4.841 to 9.491) 0.0007* 96.63 (95.44 to 97.5) < 0.0001 Random
  1. STIs Sexually Transmitted Infections
  2. *P value of risk factor < 0.05 statistically significant