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Table 2 Crude and adjusted models for Independent variables for ever used toombak

From: Determinants of smokeless tobacco use and prevalence among Sudanese adolescents

Variable Total n Ever used toombak Never used toombak Crude OR (univariate) Adjusted OR (multivariate)
OR CI 95% P-value OR CI 95% P-value
City
 Khartoum 926 63 (2) 863 (29.9) 1.08 (0.73–1.61) < 0.003 1.08 (0.70–1.67) < 0.034
 Omdurman 1526 111 (3) 1415 (37.8) Ref Ref
 Bahri 873 98 (2.5) 775 (24.7) 1.82 (1.27–2.63) 1.58 (1.11–2.25)
Gender
 Male 1576 189 (4.7) 1387 (37.9) 2.30 (1.65–3.22) < 0.001 1.53 (1.03–2.28) < 0.032
 Female 1749 83 (2.9) 1666 (54.5) Ref Ref
Grade
 Ist 1081 64 (1.6) 1017 (29.6) Ref < 0.024 Ref < 0.232
 2nd 942 75 (1.9) 867 (21.6) 1.49 (0.99–2.24) 1.29 (0.83–2.00)
 3rd 1302 133 (4.1) 1169 (41.3) 1.66 (1.14–2.41) 1.40 (0.94–2.08)
Family structure
 Father and mother 2576 198 (5.3) 2378 (72.9) Ref < 0.010 Ref < 0.032
 Others 733 74 (2.3) 659 (19.5) 1.60 (1.11–2.30) 1.52 (1.03–2.23)
Exposure to second-hand smoke at home
 Yes 807 106 (2.9) 701 (21.2) 1.60 (1.06–2.42) < 0.024 1.60 (1.11–2.31) < 0.010
 No 2506 166 (4.7) 2340 (71.3) Ref Ref
Seeing someone smoke in school
 Yes 673 101 (2.7) 572 (17.9) 1.46 (1.01–2.11) < 0.041 1.40 (0.97–2.02) < 0.065
 No 2632 170 (4.9) 2462 (74.5) Ref Ref
Friends smoking cigarette
 Yes 977 154 (4.3) 823 (24.7) 1.80 (1.12–2.89) < 0.014 1.78 (1.22–2.60) < 0.003
 No 2334 117 (3.3) 2217 (67.7) Ref Ref
Restriction of selling toombak to minors
 Yes 93 14 (0.4) 79 (2.1) 1.12 (0.34–3.73) < 0.015 1.20 (0.39–3.71) < 0.004
 No 903 107 (2.9) 796 (23.3) 1.63 (1.17–2.28) 1.73 (1.25–2.39)
 I did not try to buy 2240 140 (4.2) 2100 (67.1) Ref Ref
Received free toombak from companies
 Yes 179 45 (1.2) 134 (3.5) 2.26 (1.26–4.07) < 0.006 2.12 (1.20–3.72) < 0.009
 No 3056 217 (6.3) 2839 (89) Ref Ref
Low self-efficacy (Peer pressure for using toombak)
 Yes 116 63 (1.5) 53 (1.6) 7.32 (4.25–12.62) < 0.001 7.47 (4.45–12.52) < 0.001
 No 3145 200 (6) 2945 (90.9) Ref Ref