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Table 3 The risk of having ever been diagnosed with asthma among children based on the incidence of maternal asthma, other morbidities, and health behaviours during pregnancy (cumulative effect over age)

From: Are wheezing, asthma and eczema in children associated with mother’s health during pregnancy? Evidence from an Australian birth cohort

Maternal health, Risk factors, and medications during pregnancy Age 2–3 Age 4–5 Age 6–7 Age 8–9 Age 10–11 Age 12–13 Age 14–15
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
N = 4485 N = 4264 N = 4088 N = 3922 N = 3574 N = 3097 N = 2960
Had Asthma
No (ref.)
  Yes 2.22 (1.65–3.00)** 2.34 (1.77–3.10)** 2.58 (1.94–3.44)** 2.42 (1.83–3.2)** 2.64 (1.96–3.56)** 2.9 (2.09–4.02)** 2.5 (1.78–3.52)**
Gestational age at birth
On time (37–41 weeks, ref.)
  Early (36 weeks or less) 1.39 (0.88–2.18) 1.3 (0.88–1.91) 1.05 (0.71–1.55) 1.29 (0.88–1.89) 1.08 (0.71–1.64) 0.82 (0.50–1.35) 0.87 (0.54–1.41)
  Late (42 weeks or more) 0.79 (0.49–1.28) 1 (0.66–1.52) 0.88 (0.59–1.32) 0.83 (0.56–1.24) 0.84 (0.55–1.28) 1.05 (0.66–1.67) 0.97 (0.62–1.52)
Pre-pregnancy obesity
Healthy weight (ref.)
  Underweight 0.98 (0.68–1.4) 0.85 (0.61–1.17) 0.85 (0.63–1.16) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 0.82 (0.60–1.12) 0.87 (0.62–1.21) 0.91 (0.65–1.28)
  Overweight 1.37 (1.06–1.78)Ϯ 1.29 (1.03–1.62)Ϯ 1.27 (1.03–1.58)Ϯ 1.29 (1.04–1.59)Ϯ 1.27 (1.02–1.59)Ϯ 1.22 (0.96–1.56) 1.24 (0.97–1.58)
  Obesity 1.54 (1.16–2.05)* 1.48 (1.15–1.89)* 1.39 (1.09–1.78)* 1.42 (1.12–1.80)* 1.41 (1.09–1.81)* 1.21 (0.92–1.59) 1.27 (0.97–1.67)
  Not known 1.42 (1.08–1.88)Ϯ 1.33 (1.04–1.7)Ϯ 1.34 (1.05–1.71)Ϯ 1.36 (1.07–1.72)Ϯ 1.62 (1.26–2.09)** 1.65 (1.25–2.19)** 1.69 (1.26–2.25)**
Smoking during 1st trimester
None (ref.)
   < =10 cigarettes daily 1.10 (0.78–1.54) 0.95 (0.69–1.30) 1.05 (0.77–1.43) 0.98 (0.72–1.35) 1.08 (0.77–1.51) 1.03 (0.71–1.5) 0.88 (0.59–1.32)
  11+ cigarettes daily 1.67 (1.1–2.54)Ϯ 1.84 (1.24–2.72)* 1.66 (1.12–2.47)Ϯ 1.54 (1.01–2.34)Ϯ 1.6 (1.02–2.52)Ϯ 1.58 (0.97–2.57) 1.88 (1.14–3.09)Ϯ
Antibiotic medication
No (ref.)
  Yes 1.20 (0.89–1.60) 1.09 (0.84–1.41) 1.19 (0.91–1.55) 1.15 (0.89–1.49) 1.18 (0.90–1.54) 1.01 (0.75–1.36) 1.02 (0.75–1.38)
Anti-depressant medication
No (ref.)
  Yes 0.95 (0.49–1.85) 1.30 (0.74–2.29) 1.83 (1.07–3.12)Ϯ 1.27 (0.71–2.26) 1.49 (0.82–2.71) 1.3 (0.65–2.60) 0.50 (0.21–1.20)
  1. Notes: Ϯ p < 0.05 & > 0.01, * p < 0.01 & > 0.001, ** p < 0.001; the regression models were adjusted for several covariates outlined in ‘Control variables’ sub-section of ‘Methods’ section. Abbreviation: OR Odds Ratio; ref., reference category