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Table 4 Results of the linear regression analyses examining the correlates of the number of chronic physical conditions and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores, Singapore, 2019-2020, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices study on diabetes 

From: Dietary patterns of persons with chronic conditions within a multi-ethnic population: results from the nationwide Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey on diabetes in Singapore

  DASH score
  Total sample
(n = 2571)
No chronic physical condition
(n = 1133)
  B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Age groups
 18-34 ref    ref   
 35-49 1.78 1.23 – 2.33 <0.001 1.77 1.02 – 2.52 <0.001
 50-64 2.86 2.24 – 3.47 <0.001 2.38 1.47 – 3.28 <0.001
 65 and above 3.45 2.73 – 4.17 <0.001 3.41 2.20 – 4.63 <0.001
Gender       
 Female ref    ref   
 Male -1.50 -1.87 – -1.14 <0.001 -1.89 -2.42 – -1.35 <0.001
Ethnicity       
 Chinese ref    ref   
 Malay 0.26 -0.20 – 0.72 0.27 0.45 -0.23 – 1.13 0.19
 Indian 2.54 2.09 – 2.98 <0.001 2.65 1.99 – 3.31 <0.001
 Others 0.67 -0.05 – 1.39 0.07 0.96 -0.07 – 1.98 0.07
Education       
 Degree, professional certifications and above ref    ref   
 Primary and below -1.99 -2.69 – -1.29 <0.001 -2.06 -3.23 – -0.88 0.001
 Secondary -1.72 -2.31 – -1.12 <0.001 -1.42 -2.28 – -0.57 0.001
 Pre-U/Junior College -0.39 -1.28 – 0.51 0.40 0.82 -0.48 – 2.11 0.22
 Vocational Institute/ITE -1.42 -2.15 – -0.69 <0.001 -1.75 -2.77 – 0.73 0.001
 Diploma -0.84 -1.40 – -0.27 0.004 -0.64 -1.42 – 0.13 0.11
Marital Status       
 Married/Cohabiting ref    ref   
 Single -0.28 -0.79 – 0.24 0.30 -0.17 -0.89 – 0.55 0.64
 Divorced/Separated/Widowed -0.55 -1.16 – -0.07 0.08 -0.29 -1.41– 0.83 0.61
Employment       
 Employed ref    ref   
 Economically inactive 0.45 -0.03 – 0.93 0.07 0.60 -0.16 – 1.37 0.12
 Unemployed 0.39 -0.44 – 1.23 0.35 0.35 -0.89 – 1.59 0.58
Personal Income (Monthly)       
 Below 2,000/No income ref    ref   
 2,000-3,999 -0.30 -0.79 – 0.19 0.23 -0.10 -0.82 – 0.62 0.78
 4,000-5,999 -0.27 -0.92 – 0.38 0.42 -0.17 -1.11 – 0.77 0.73
 6,000-9,999 -0.03 -0.85 – 0.79 0.95 0.43 -0.76 – 1.61 0.48
 10,000 and above 0.13 -0.86 – 1.12 0.80 0.15 -1.41 – 1.71 0.85
BMI       
 Normal range ≥ 18.5 & <25 ref    ref   
 Underweight < 18.5 -0.14 -0.90 – 0.62 0.81 -0.41 -1.38 – 0.56 0.41
 Overweight ≥ 25 & <30.0 0.22 -0.18 – 0.63 0.27 0.65 0.04 – 1.25 0.05
 Obese ≥ 30.0 -0.17 -0.68 – 0.34 0.52 -0.16 -0.97 – 0.65 0.70
Classifications       
 No chronic physical condition ref    - - -
 One chronic physical condition 0.04 -0.38 – 0.46 0.84 - - -
 Two or more chronic physical conditions 0.14 -0.31 – 0.59 0.54 - - -
  DASH score
  One chronic physical condition
(n = 681)
Two or more chronic physical conditions
(n = 757)
  B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
Age groups       
 18-34 ref    ref   
 35-49 1.54 0.45 – 2.63 0.01 2.90 1.52 – 4.27 <0.001
 50-64 2.87 1.67 – 4.07 <0.001 4.10 2.78 – 5.41 <0.001
 65 and above 4.19 2.76 – 5.63 <0.001 3.87 2.45 – 5.29 <0.001
Gender       
 Female ref    ref   
 Male -0.97 -1.71 – -0.22 0.01 -1.48 -2.19 – -0.77 <0.001
Ethnicity       
 Chinese ref    ref   
 Malay -0.47 -1.40 – 0.46 0.32 0.61 -0.27 – 1.49 0.18
 Indian 2.19 1.30 – 3.09 <0.001 2.61 1.78 – 3.44 <0.001
 Others -0.35 -1.75 – 1.04 0.62 1.49 0.01 – 2.97 0.04
Education       
 Degree, professional certifications and above ref    ref   
 Primary and below -3.04 -4.39 – -1.69 <0.001 -1.04 -2.33 – 0.26 0.12
 Secondary -2.35 -3.54 – -1.16 <0.001 -1.19 -2.41 – 0.03 0.06
 Pre-U/Junior College -1.09 -2.85 – 0.68 0.23 -1.44 -3.25 – 0.38 0.12
 Vocational Institute/ITE -1.22 -2.61 – 0.17 0.08 -0.76 -2.38 – 0.86 0.36
 Diploma -1.51 -2.61 – -0.40 0.01 -0.22 -1.56 – 1.11 0.74
Marital Status       
 Married/Cohabiting ref    ref   
 Single -0.53 -1.60 – 0.54 0.33 -0.18 -1.28 – 0.91 0.74
 Divorced/Separated/Widowed -0.66 -1.94 – 0.62 0.31 -0.68 -1.60 – 0.25 0.15
Employment       
 Employed ref    ref   
 Economically inactive 0.26 -0.69 – 1.22 0.59 0.34 -0.55 – 1.23 0.45
 Unemployed 0.97 -0.81 – 2.74 0.29 -0.07 -1.56 – 1.43 0.93
Personal Income (Monthly)       
 Below 2,000/No income ref    ref   
 2,000-3,999 -0.32 -1.27 – 0.63 0.51 -0.54 -1.49 – 0.41 0.26
 4,000-5,999 0.41 -0.85 – 1.67 0.52 -1.41 -2.79 – -0.04 0.04
 6,000-9,999 -0.12 -1.74 – 1.50 0.89 -0.59 -2.26 – 1.09 0.49
 10,000 and above -0.66 -2.50 – 1.17 0.48 1.01 -0.82 – 2.85 0.28
BMI       
 Normal range ≥ 18.5 & <25 ref    ref   
 Underweight < 18.5 -0.12 -1.65 – 1.40 0.87 0.68 -1.37 – 2.73 0.52
 Overweight ≥ 25 & <30.0 0.21 -0.57 – 1.00 0.60 -0.44 -1.19 – 0.31 0.25
 Obese ≥ 30.0 0.85 -0.20 – 1.89 0.11 -1.06 -1.94 – 0.18 0.20
Classifications       
 No chronic physical condition - - - - - -
 One chronic physical condition - - - - - -
 Two or more chronic physical conditions - - - - - -
  1. B – represents unstandardized coefficient; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval of β
  2. Bold print denotes statistically significant B value
  3. Numbers included within analyses may not tally with sample size due to missing data on variables