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Table 3 Details of the Foresight domains [59] and variables and the items that will be used to measure them

From: Healthy together Victoria and childhood obesity—a methodology for measuring changes in childhood obesity in response to a community-based, whole of system cluster randomized control trial

Foresight domain Foresight variable Foresight description Data collection tool Item
Physical activity environment Accessibility to opportunities for physical exercise Physical accessibility (distance, safety) of opportunities for physical exercise PHS Perceived environmental amenity
  Ambient temperature Average environmental temperature indoors Not available from surveys. Ambient temperature
Bureau Of Meteorology (BOM)
http://www.bom.gov.au/products/IDV65079.shtml
  Cost of physical exercise Financial cost of physical recreation Not available from surveys  
Data available from individual LGAs
  Dominance of motorised transport Degree to which motorised transport dominates other ways of transport PHS Perceived environmental amenity
Data available from individual LGAs
Combined with
Availability of public transport
  Dominance of sedentary employment Degree to which average citizens influence one another’s choices Data available from individual LGAs Employment statistics
  Opportunity for team-based activity N/A Not available from surveys Register of the number of sporting clubs in each LGA
Data available from individual LGAs
  Opportunity for unmotorised transport Availability of facilities/infrastructure for unmotorised transport PHS Perceived environmental amenity
  Perceived danger in environment N/A Available from the Community Indicators Victoria website by LGA Perceptions of safety
  Reliance of labor-saving devices Reliance on labor-saving devices for daily chores Not available from surveys  
  Safety of unmotorised transport Level of risk for harm by engaging in non-motorised transport PHS Perceived environmental amenity
  Social depreciation of labor Degree to which manual labor is negatively valued in a given socio-cultural group Not available from surveys Employment demographics
Can be inferred from the local demographics available on the Local Government websites
  Sociocultural valuation of physical activity Degree to which physical activity is positively valued in a given socio-cultural group PHS Social environment (social norms) for HEPA
  Walkability of living environment   PHS Perceived environmental amenity
Available from the Community Indicators Victoria website by LGA
School walkability
Individual physical activity Degree of innate activity in childhood Degree to which physical activity is part of typical childhood behavior PHS and WHOCC surveys Level of physical activity
  Degree of physical education Degree to which people have learned to use their body (for labor, leisure and transport) VPHS Frequency and amount of vigorous physical activity in past week
PHS
Physical Activity and sedentary
  Functional fitness Level of physical fitness to perform daily tasks VPHS Self-reported health status
WHOCC
Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) [40]
  Learned activity patterns in early childhood Degree of activity experienced by the foetus, newborn and child in early life through parental physical activity Not available from surveys  
  Level of domestic activity Level of physical activity exhibited in the domestic arena VPHS Physical activity at work
  Level of occupational activity Level of physical activity associated to professional duties VPHS Physical activity at work
  Level of recreational activity Degree to which people engage in physical activity for recreation VPHS Frequency and amount of vigorous physical activity in past week
PHS
Physical Activity and sedentary
  Level of transport activity Level of physical activity associated to transport Not available from surveys  
Available from the Community Indicators Victoria website by LGA for Melbourne metropolitan area only
  Non-volitional activity (NEAT) extent to which people engage in non-volitional activity (twitching etc.) Not available from surveys  
  Parental modelling of activity Degree to which parents act as a role model in physical activity related behavioral patterns PHS Parent physical activity
Child physical activity
  Physical activity Level of physical activity people engage in VPHS Frequency and amount of vigorous physical activity in past week
PHS
Physical Activity and sedentary
Social psychology Acculturation Degree to which a (dominant) culture is assimilated VPHS Country of birth
Main language spoken at home
Country of birth of mother
Country of birth of father
  Availability of passive entertainment options Availability of recreational options that involve only limited physical exercise (tv, computer games) PHS Sedentary behavior items
  Children’s control of diet Degree to which children exert influence on dietary choices in a family Not available from surveys  
  Conceptualisation of obesity as a disease Degree to which people consider obesity to be an abnormal deviation from the healthy norm Not available from surveys  
  Education N/A VPHS & PHS Demographics
  Exposure to food advertising N/A Not available from surveys Level of exposure to food advertising
Available from the literature
  Importance of ideal body-size image Degree to which there is a dominant image of an ideal body size in a society Not available from surveys  
  Media availability Availability of media across formats Not available from surveys Data on availability of all types of media
The Victorian Government digital innovation review Part B: The digital readiness of Victorian citizens
  Media consumption Degree to which people make use of the media offerings Not available from surveys Data on use of all types of media
The Victorian Government digital innovation review Part B: The digital readiness of Victorian citizens
  Parental control Level of control exerted by parents on children’s choices Not available from surveys  
  Peer pressure Degree to which average citizens influence one another’s choices PHS Social environment (social norms) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Perceived lack of time By all citizens, particularly those engaged in economic activity PHS Instrumental beliefs (facilitators & barriers, decisional balance) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Smoking cessation Number of people quitting smoking VPHS Number of people smoking from one survey to the next
  Social acceptability of fatness N/A VPHS & PHS Height and weight; BMI heterogeneity between LGAs
  Sociocultural valuation of food Degree to which food is positively valued within a given socio-cultural group PHS Instrumental
  TV watching Time spent watching tv PHS Sedentary behavior
Individual psychology Demand for indulgence/compensation Strength of demand for psychological release after stress or effort Not available from surveys  
  Desire to resolve tension Desire to resolve psychological conflict between what people desire and what they need to stay healthy PHS Affective attitudes (facilitators & barriers, decisional balance) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
Combined with
Behavioral intentions (desire to change behavior) for HEPA
And Daily vegetable consumption
Daily fruit consumption
Physical Activity Sedentary behavior
beliefs (facilitators & barriers, decisional balance) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Food literacy Degree to which people are able to assess nutritional quality and provenance PHS Health Literacy for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Individualism Weakness of social fabric PHS Social environment (social norms) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
vailable from the Community Indicators Victoria website by LGA
Level of social support
  Perceived inconsistency of science-based messages Degree to which there is incompatibility between scientific assessments on food related issues which (are perceived) to be similar PHS Health Literacy for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Psychological ambivalence Degree to which people experience a psychological conflict between what people desire (e.g., fatty, sweet foods) and the need to stay healthy PHS Affective attitudes (facilitators & barriers, decisional balance) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Self esteem Sense of purpose and self-confidence of individuals PHS Self-efficacy for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Stress Perceived level of stress by individuals VPHS Psychological distress (Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale)
  Use of medicines N/A VPHS Diabetes status
Type of diabetes
Age first diagnosed with diabetes
Type of healthcare received in past year
Food consumption Alcohol consumption N/A VPHS Whether had an alcoholic drink of any kind in previous
12 months
Frequency of having an alcoholic drink of any kind
Amount of standard drinks consumed when drinking
Level of frequency of high-risk drinking
  Convenience of food offerings The degree to which food offerings cater to the desire for convenience PHS Food accessibility
  Demand for convenience Consumer demand for convenient (time/effort saving) food offerings PHS Instrumental beliefs (facilitators & barriers, decisional balance) for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  De-skilling The degree to which individuals are not able anymore to engage independently in routine tasks for daily living (such as cooking) VPHS Self-reported health status
Combined with
Number and type of chronic diseases
  Energy-density of food offerings Number of calories per unit food weight VPHS Calculated from: Daily vegetable consumption
PHS
Daily fruit consumption
Milk consumption
Water consumption
Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks
Daily vegetable consumption
Daily fruit consumption
  Fibre content of Food & Drink N/A VPHS Daily vegetable consumption
PHS
Daily fruit consumption
Milk consumption
Water consumption
Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks
Daily vegetable consumption
Daily fruit consumption
  Food abundance The aggregate amount of food (volume) that is at any moment in time available in UK (AU) society Not available from surveys The amount of food available per person in Australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012. Australia’s food & nutrition 2012. Cat. no. PHE 163. Canberra: AIHW.
  Food exposure The number of food cues individuals are confronted with on a daily basis Not available from surveys  
Available from the literature
  Food variety The number of different food products (natural and processed) available at any moment in time Not available from surveys Categories of the amount of food available per person in Australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012. Australia’s food & nutrition 2012. Cat. no. PHE 163. Canberra: AIHW.
  Force of dietary habits The degree to which behavioral patterns related to food intake are dictated by routine and habit PHS Habit strength for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity
  Nutritional quality of Food & Drink N/A VPHS Daily vegetable consumption
PHS
Daily fruit consumption
Milk consumption
Water consumption
Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks
Daily vegetable consumption
Daily fruit consumption
  Palatability of food offerings N/A Not available from surveys  
  Portion size   Not available from surveys  
  Rate of eating Time-span devoted to consuming a meal Not available from surveys  
  Tendency to graze Tendency to eat outside fixed meal times Not available from surveys