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Methodology

Section edited by: Georgia Ntani and Renata Yokota

This section welcomes articles describing how to do research with a particular focus on public health methods, including epidemiological study designs (observational and experimental), review and meta-analysis, and statistical tools.  We are particularly interested in manuscripts that introduce early career researcher to specific methodological topics and give them guidance on how to do research.

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  1. Using publicly available data on the number of new hospitalisations we use a newly developed statistical model to produce a phase portrait to monitor the epidemic allowing for assessing whether or not interven...

    Authors: Christel Faes, Niel Hens and Marius Gilbert

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:164

    Content type: Commentary

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  2. The Model Disability Survey (MDS) is the current standard recommended by WHO to collect functioning and disability data. Answering calls from countries requesting a version to be implemented as a module that c...

    Authors: Carla Sabariego, Carolina Fellinghauer, Lindsay Lee, Aleksandra Posarac, Jerome Bickenbach, Nenad Kostanjsek, Somnath Chatterji, Kaloyan Kamenov and Alarcos Cieza

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:128

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. The InfAct (Information for Action) project is a European Commission Joint Action on Health Information which has promoted the potential role of burden of disease (BoD) approaches to improve the current European ...

    Authors: Romana Haneef, Jürgen Schmidt, Anne Gallay, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Ian Grant, Alexander Rommel, Grant MA Wyper, Herman Van Oyen, Henk Hilderink, Thomas Ziese and John Newton

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:126

    Content type: Methodology

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  4. Early in the pandemic, inadequate SARS-CoV-2 testing limited understanding of transmission. Chief among barriers to large-scale testing was unknown feasibility, particularly in non-urban areas. Our objective w...

    Authors: Ayesha Appa, Gabriel Chamie, Aenor Sawyer, Kimberly Baltzell, Kathryn Dippell, Salu Ribeiro, Elias Duarte, Joanna Vinden, CLIAHUB Consortium, Jonathan Kramer-Feldman, Shahryar Rahdari, Doug MacIntosh, Katherine Nicholson, Jonathan Im, Diane Havlir and Bryan Greenhouse

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:125

    Content type: Methodology

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  5. Since the start of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Belgian government has implemented various infection prevention and control measures. This study assessed the extent to which the general population in Belgium adh...

    Authors: Joris Adriaan Frank van Loenhout, Kirsten Vanderplanken, Bénédicte Scheen, Stephan Van den Broucke and Isabelle Aujoulat

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:74

    Content type: Research

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  6. The deepening population aging is urging policy makers to launch delayed retirement initiative, when the society is faced with unprecedented challenges of shrinking labor supply, heavier pension burdens and sl...

    Authors: Jiannan Li, Bocong Yuan and Junbang Lan

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:59

    Content type: Research

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  7. Systematic reviews, considered the gold standard for the assessment of scientific evidence, may present conflicting findings for the same clinical issue, and such dissent may be justified by the forms of elabo...

    Authors: Amanda Oliveira Lyrio, Simone Seixas da Cruz, Isaac Suzart Gomes-Filho, Viviane Seixas Silva Silveira, Elivan Silva Souza, Josicélia Estrela Tuy Batista, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy Figueiredo and Mauricio Gomes Pereira

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:43

    Content type: Methodology

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  8. Homelessness is often described as both a driver and a consequence of poor health, social exclusion and economic marginalisation. The present protocol provides a detailed description of the study Examining the he...

    Authors: Sonia Lech, Liane Schenk, Jenny De la Torre Castro and Daniel Schindel

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. The Most Significant Change is a story-based evaluation approach used in many international development programs. This practice review summarises practical experience with the approach in complex health interv...

    Authors: Kendra Tonkin, Hilah Silver, Juan Pimentel, Anne Marie Chomat, Ivan Sarmiento, Loubna Belaid, Anne Cockcroft and Neil Andersson

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:18

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. Hate crimes have raised in Spain and the gender and sexuality-based conflicts persist worldwide which leads to this problem having an effect on health and wellbeing. Following a focus of transforming Higher Ed...

    Authors: Elena María Gallardo-Nieto, Aitor Gómez, Regina Gairal-Casadó and María del Mar Ramis-Salas

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:16

    Content type: Research

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  11. Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was firstly reported in Wuhan City, China in December 2019, Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 is predomi...

    Authors: Jianli Liu, Yuan Zhou, Chuanyu Ye, Guangming Zhang, Feng Zhang and Chunjuan Song

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:8

    Content type: Research

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  12. Vulnerability at the individual, family, community or organization level affects access and utilization of health services, and is a key consideration for health equity. Several frameworks have been used to ex...

    Authors: Neema Murembe, Teddy Kyomuhangi, Kimberly Manalili, Florence Beinempaka, Primrose Nakazibwe, Clare Kyokushaba, Basil Tibanyendera, Jennifer L. Brenner and Eleanor Turyakira

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:4

    Content type: Commentary

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  13. The global increase in the utilization of non - prescribed antibiotics (NPA), is concerning, with high persistence within the low and middle-income countries (LMICs). With a negative impact on the health of in...

    Authors: Neusa F. Torres, Buyisile Chibi, Desmond Kuupiel, Vernon P. Solomon, Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson and Lyn E. Middleton

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2021 79:2

    Content type: Systematic review

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  14. Summary measures of population health are increasingly used in different public health reporting systems for setting priorities for health care and social service delivery and planning.

    Authors: Elena von der Lippe, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Michelle Gourley, Juanita Haagsma, Henk Hilderink, Michael Porst, Annelene Wengler, Grant Wyper and Ian Grant

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:137

    Content type: Research

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  15. Increased Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) coverage improves health status and the survival of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as a result, reproductive health needs of the clients are incre...

    Authors: Getu Mosisa, Reta Tsegaye, Bizuneh Wakuma, Diriba Mulisa, Werku Etefa, Muktar Abadiga, Ginenus Fekadu, Adugna Oluma and Ebisa Turi

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:123

    Content type: Systematic review

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  16. In response to the COVID-19 epidemic, caused by a novel coronavirus, it was of great importance to rapidly collect as much accurate information as possible in order to characterize the public health threat and...

    Authors: Nina Van Goethem, Aline Vilain, Chloé Wyndham-Thomas, Jessika Deblonde, Nathalie Bossuyt, Tinne Lernout, Javiera Rebolledo Gonzalez, Sophie Quoilin, Vincent Melis and Dominique Van Beckhoven

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:121

    Content type: Methodology

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Archives of Public Health 2021 79:147

  17. Health administrative data were increasingly used for chronic diseases (CDs) surveillance purposes. This cross sectional study explored the agreement between Belgian compulsory health insurance (BCHI) data and...

    Authors: Finaba Berete, Stefaan Demarest, Rana Charafeddine, Olivier Bruyère and Johan Van der Heyden

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:120

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Archives of Public Health 2020 78:136

  18. Air pollution, green space and smoking are known to affect human health. However, less is known about their underlying biological mechanisms. One of these mechanisms could be biological aging. In this study, w...

    Authors: Pauline Hautekiet, Tim S. Nawrot, Stefaan Demarest, Johan Van der Heyden, Ilse Van Overmeire, Eva M. De Clercq and Nelly D. Saenen

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:105

    Content type: Research

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  19. Psoriasis (PsO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic diseases that affect patients’ quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to develop a pilot outcome-based, patient-centric management model...

    Authors: Simon Francis Thomsen, Lone Skov, Lars Erik Kristensen, Morten Størling Hedegaard, Jakob Kjellberg, Tanja Schjødt Jørgensen, Søren Brenøe and Rikke Dodge

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:95

    Content type: Research

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  20. Acceptance of Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) as a measure of health summary and progression has increased over the years, which in turn has instigated comparative analysis studies of DALY across time and...

    Authors: Nitya Saxena and Deepak Sethia

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:91

    Content type: Methodology

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  21. Australia’s 1996 national burden of disease (BoD) study was one of the first in the world and updates have continued over the following two decades with the fifth study now underway. The studies adapt the glob...

    Authors: Lynelle Moon, Michelle Gourley, John Goss, Miriam Lum On, Paula Laws, Anna Reynolds and Richard Juckes

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:88

    Content type: Commentary

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  22. The Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a measure to prioritize in the public health field. In the Netherlands, the DALY estimates are calculated since 1997 and are included in the Public Health Status and...

    Authors: Henk B. M. Hilderink, Marjanne H. D. Plasmans, M. J. J. C. (René) Poos, Petra E. D. Eysink and Ronald Gijsen

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:85

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. In 1995, Eide and Gefeller introduced the concepts of sequential and average attributable fractions as methods to partition the risk of disease among differing exposures. In particular, sequential attributable...

    Authors: John Ferguson, Maurice O’Connell and Martin O’Donnell

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:67

    Content type: Research

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  24. Many diet-related surveys have been conducted in England over the past four to five decades. Yet, diet-related ill-health is estimated to cost the NHS £5.8 billion annually. There has been no recent assessment...

    Authors: Monique Campbell, Dianna Smith, Janis Baird, Christina Vogel and Emeritus Graham Moon

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:66

    Content type: Methodology

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  25. Body fat estimation allows measuring changes over time attributed to interventions and treatments in different settings such as hospitals, clinical practice, nursing homes and research. However, only few studi...

    Authors: Erika Aparecida Silveira, Larissa Silva Barbosa, Ana Paula Santos Rodrigues, Matias Noll and Cesar De Oliveira

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:65

    Content type: Research

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  26. Application of time series modeling to predict reports related to maltreatment of vulnerable adults can be helpful for efficient early planning and resource allocation to handle a high volume of investigations...

    Authors: Nelís Soto-Ramírez, Janet Odeku, Courtney Foxe, Cynthia Flynn and Diana Tester

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:53

    Content type: Research

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  27. The trend of increasing caesarean deliveries in developed countries over the past three decades is now being observed in sub-Saharan African. This rise might be associated with an increase in the complications...

    Authors: Tsi Njim, Bayee Swiri Tanyitiku and Clarence Mbanga

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:51

    Content type: Systematic review

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  28. In 2018 the first Belgian Health Examination Survey (BELHES) took place. The target group included all Belgian residents aged 18 years and older. The BELHES was organized as a second stage of the sixth Belgian...

    Authors: Diem Nguyen, Pauline Hautekiet, Finaba Berete, Elise Braekman, Rana Charafeddine, Stefaan Demarest, Sabine Drieskens, Lydia Gisle, Lize Hermans, Jean Tafforeau and Johan Van der Heyden

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:50

    Content type: Methodology

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  29. The National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit in England has conducted five National Maternity Surveys (NMS) at varying intervals since 1995. This paper aims to describe the changes in NMS response rates over time ...

    Authors: Siân Harrison, Fiona Alderdice, Jane Henderson, Maggie Redshaw and Maria A. Quigley

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:46

    Content type: Research

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  30. Adolescent deliveries (10–19 years) carry a high risk of adverse outcomes due to the biological and physiological immaturity of these mothers. They pose a significant health burden in Cameroon, as it is report...

    Authors: Tsi Njim, Bayee Swiri Tanyitiku and Carlson Sama Babila

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:24

    Content type: Systematic review

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  31. Challenges and opportunities towards the road of universal health coverage (UHC) in Nepal: a systematic review’ is a policy review paper and we published in BMC – Archives of Public Health. Policy research is ...

    Authors: Chhabi Lal Ranabhat and Devaraj Acharya

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:38

    Content type: Letter to the Editor Response

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    The original article was published in Archives of Public Health 2020 78:37

  32. Air pollution is an environmental health issue that has received much attention due to its harmful effects on public health. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-care ...

    Authors: Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Farzad Jalilian, Elena-Niculina Dragoi, Razieh Pirouzeh, Laleh Solaimanizadeh and Shima Khashij

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:19

    Content type: Research

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  33. This letter is in response to a recent paper by Millstone and Dawson (2019) in which the authors criticise the re-evaluation of the high intensity sweetener aspartame in 2013 by the former EFSA’s Panel on Food...

    Authors: George E. N. Kass and Federica Lodi

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:14

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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    The original article was published in Archives of Public Health 2019 77:34

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Archives of Public Health 2020 78:112

  34. This article describes the design of an intervention study that focuses on whether and to what degree culturally competent social robots can improve health and well-being related outcomes among older adults re...

    Authors: Chris Papadopoulos, Tetiana Hill, Linda Battistuzzi, Nina Castro, Abiha Nigath, Gurch Randhawa, Len Merton, Sanjeev Kanoria, Hiroko Kamide, Nak-Young Chong, David Hewson, Rosemary Davidson and Antonio Sgorbissa

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:26

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. The Rapid Assessment of Hearing Loss (RAHL) survey protocol aims to measure the prevalence and causes of hearing loss in a low cost and rapid manner, to inform planning of ear and hearing services. This paper ...

    Authors: Tess Bright, Xin Shan, Jinling Xu, Jianguo Liang, Baixiang Xiao, Robbert Ensink, Islay Mactaggart, Sarah Polack and Jennifer L. Y. Yip

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. In the context of health-related interventions, sustainability is the capacity to maintain the changes resulting from the intervention. These can be improved policies, practices or trends intended to improve p...

    Authors: Rebecca E. Lee, Dennis Kao, Nathan H. Parker, Allen M. Hallett, Camila Y. Kochi, Maria J. Modelska, Hanadi S. Rifai and Daniel P. O’Connor

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  37. Severity distributions are a means of summarising the range of health loss suffered to disease which enables estimates of disease occurrence to be paired with disability weights to estimate Years Lost to Disab...

    Authors: Grant M. A. Wyper, Ian Grant, Eilidh Fletcher, Neil Chalmers, Gerry McCartney and Diane L. Stockton

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:3

    Content type: Commentary

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Archives of Public Health 2020 78:29

  38. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) are an established method for quantifying population health needs and guiding prioritisation decisions. Global Burden of Disease (GBD) estimates aim to ensure comparabili...

    Authors: Grant M. A. Wyper, Ian Grant, Eilidh Fletcher, Gerry McCartney, Colin Fischbacher and Diane L. Stockton

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2020 78:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. While physical (in) activity surveillance has grown and continues to grow globally, surveillance of sedentary behaviour is in its infancy. As surveillance evolves to meet the changing nature of these behaviour...

    Authors: Stephanie A. Prince, Gregory P. Butler, Karen C. Roberts, Pam Lapointe, Andrew M. MacKenzie, Rachel C. Colley, Maria Foley, Travis J. Saunders and Wendy Thompson

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2019 77:53

    Content type: Methodology

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  40. Go! Austin/Vamos! Austin (GAVA) is a coalition-led health initiative that targets low-income communities with disparities in access to healthy food and physical activity. The purpose of this initiative was to inc...

    Authors: Alexandra van den Berg, Aida Nielsen, Nika Akhavan, Carmen Llanes Pulido, Semonti Basu, Aliya Hussaini, Christine Jovanovic, Kathryn Janda, Laurence Denis and Nalini Ranjit

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2019 77:25

    Content type: Research

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  41. Discrete choice experiment (DCE) is a quantitative technique which helps determine preferences from a definite set of choices. DCEs have been widely used to inform health services in high-income country settin...

    Authors: Marwa Abdel-All, Blake Angell, Stephen Jan, D. Praveen and Rohina Joshi

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2019 77:20

    Content type: Methodology

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  42. The improvements in cancer control led to an increase in the number of cancer survivors, notably, in the working age population (16–64 years). There is a strong need to assess and understand their reintegratio...

    Authors: Régine L. Kiasuwa-Mbengi, Victoria Nyaga, Renée Otter, Christophe de Brouwer and Catherine Bouland

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2019 77:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. National monitoring of school-aged physical activity (PA) behaviours is necessary to inform policy makers. The Finnish School-aged Physical Activity (FSPA – LIITU in Finnish) is a physical activity monitoring ...

    Authors: Kwok Ng, Riikka Hämylä, Jorma Tynjälä, Jari Villberg, Tuija Tammelin, Lasse Kannas and Sami Kokko

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2019 77:9

    Content type: Research

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  44. Unhealthy dietary behaviors have progressively increased the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Thus, assessing such behaviors and their associated beliefs by valid measurement tools seems essential. This study ...

    Authors: Fataneh Goodarzi, Marzieh Araban, Ahmad Ali Eslami and Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2019 77:3

    Content type: Research

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  45. In the prevailing economic perspective, health is viewed as a type of capital stock that yields ‘healthy days’ in human society. However, evaluations of this health capital stock are still limited to specific ...

    Authors: Isma Addi Jumbri, Shinya Ikeda and Shunsuke Managi

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2018 76:81

    Content type: Research

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  46. Measuring the true incidence of injury or medically attended injury is challenging. Population surveys, despite problems with recall and selection bias, remain the only source of information for injury inciden...

    Authors: Dritan Bejko, Maria Ruiz-Castell, Anna Schritz, Bjarne Laursen, Rupert Kisser, Wim Rogmans, Ronan A. Lyons, Huib Valkenberg, Samantha Turner, Robert Bauer, Gabrielle Ellsaesser and Nathalie de Rekeneire

    Citation: Archives of Public Health 2018 76:76

    Content type: Methodology

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