Darko E, Smith W, Walker D. Gender Violence in Papua New Guinea. The cost of business. Landon (UK): Overseas Development Institute; 2015.
Memiah P, et al. The Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Associated Risk Factors, and Other Moderating Effects: Findings From the Kenya National Health Demographic Survey. J Interpers Violence. 2021;36(11–12):5297–317.
Broekhoff M. ‘Contributing Factors and Strategies for Prevention of Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence in Papua New Guinea.’ 2012. p. 63.
Murshid NS. Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women. J Interpers Violence. 2019;34(3):475–95.
Campbell JC. Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. Lancet. 2002;359:6.
Dichter ME, Marcus SC, Wagner C, Bonomi AE. Associations between psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence and health outcomes among women veteran VA patients. Soc Work Ment Health. 2014;12(5–6):411–28.
Lewis I, Maruia B, Walker S. Violence against Women in Papua New Guinea. J Family Studies. 2008;14(2–3):183–97.
Sabri B, Renner LM, Stockman JK, et al. Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence and Violence-Related Injuries among Women in India. Women Health. 2014;54:281–300.
Uthman OA, Lawoko S, Moradi T. Factors Associated with Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women: A Comparative Analysis of 17 Sub-Saharan Countries. BMC Int Health Human Rights. 2009;9(1):14.
Agarwal B. Gender Equality, Food Security and the Sustainable Development Goals. Curr Opinion Environ Sustainability. 2018;34:26–32.
World Health Organization (WHO). Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. 2013. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/85239/9789241564625_eng.pdf.
Waltermaurer E. Public Justification of Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of the Literature. Trauma Viol Abuse. 2012;13(3):167–75.
Jewkes R, Jama-Shai N, Sikweyiya Y. Enduring impact of conflict on mental health and gender-based violence perpetration in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(10):e0186062. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186062.
Fulu E, Jewkes R, Roselli T, Garcia-Moreno C. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Male Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the UN Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. Lancet Global Health. 2013;1(4):e187-207.
Kadir Shahar H, Jafri F, Mohd Zulkefli NA, Ahmad N. Prevalence of intimate partner violence in Malaysia and its associated factors: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1–9.
McKelvie S, Stocker R, Manwo MM, Manwo A, Sala T, Leodoro B, Fisher J. Intimate partner violence and health outcomes experienced by women who are pregnant: a cross-sectional survey in Sanma Province Vanuatu. Lancet Reg Health-Western Pacific. 2021;16:100272.
Mohamadi S, Shahoei R, Soofizadeh N. Relationship of domestic violence from husband and preeclampsia in postpartum women referred to Sanandaj medical education center in 2017. Iranian J Obstetr Gynecol Infertil. 2021;24(2):71–9.
Fox T. Domestic violence as a major cause of trauma in Western Province. Papua New Guinea Pacific Health Dialog. 2011;17(1):65–75.
Eves R. ‘Full price, full body’: norms, brideprice and intimate partner violence in highlands Papua New Guinea. Cult Health Sex. 2019;21(12):1367–80.
Eves R. Marital sexual violence and conjugality in highlands Papua New Guinea. Cult Health Sex. 2021;23(7):976–90.
Zorn JG. The paradoxes of sexism: Proving rape in the New Guinea courts. Lawasia J., 2010;17.
Jenkins C. National Sex and Reproduction Research Team (NSRRT). National Study of Sexual and Reproductive Knowledge and Behaviour in Papua New Guinea. Goroka, Papua New Guinea: Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research Monograph No. 10; 1994.
Kelly-Hanku A, Aeno H, Wilson L, Eves R, Mek A, NakeTrumb R, Whittaker M, Fitzgerald L, Kaldor JM, Vallely A, et al. Transgressive Women Don’t Deserve Protection’: Young Men’s Narratives of Sexual Violence against Women in Rural Papua New Guinea. Cult Health Sexuality. 2016;18(11):1207–20.
Heise LL. Violence against women: An integrated, ecological framework. Violence against Women. 1998;1998(4):262–90.
Jun H-J, Rich-Edwards JW, Boynton-Jarrett R, Wright RJ. Intimate Partner Violence and Cigarette Smoking: Association between Smoking Risk and Psychological Abuse With and Without Co-Occurrence of Physical and Sexual Abuse. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(3):527–35.
Valdez CE, Lilly MM, Sandberg DA. Gender Differences in Attitudinal Acceptance of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration under Attachment-Relevant Contexts. Violence Vict. 2012;27(2):229–45.
Beyer K, Wallis AB, Hamberger LK. Neighbourhood environment and intimate partner violence: A systematic review. Trauma Viol Abuse. 2015;16:16–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838013515758.
Pinchevsky GM, Wright EM. The impact of neighborhoods on intimate partner violence and victimization. Trauma Viol Abuse. 2012;13:112–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838012445641.
Bonomi AE, Trabert B, Anderson ML, Kernic MA, Holt VL. Intimate partner violence and neighborhood income: A longitudinal analysis. Viol Against Women. 2014;20:42–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801213520580.
Renzetti CM, Edleson JL, Bergen RK. Sourcebook on violence against women. Los Angeles, CA: Sage; 2011.
Gotierrez LM. Book Reviews : Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse. K. Yllo¨ & M. Bograd (Eds.) (pp. 11–26). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Press; 1988.
Zapata-Calvente AL, Megías JL, Moya M, Schoebi D. Gender-Related Ideological and Structural Macrosocial Factors Associated With Intimate Partner Violence Against European Women. Psychol Women Q. 2019;43(3):317–34.
Cao J, Lee C-Y, Liu X, Gonzalez-Guarda RM. Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Intimate Partner Violence Against Chinese Women: A Systematic Review. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2021;ePub(ePub):ePub. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380211030235.
Islam MJ, Rahman M, Broidy L, et al. Assessing the Link between Witnessing Inter-Parental Violence and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:183.
Rani M, Bonu S, Diop-Sidibe N. An empirical investigation of attitudes towards wife-beating among men and women in seven sub-Saharan African countries. Afr J Reprod Health. 2004;8:116–36.
Okenwa-Emegwa L, Lawoko S, Jansson B. Attitudes toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Nigeria. SAGE Open. 2016;6(4):215824401666799.
National Statistical Office (NSO) [Papua New Guinea] and ICF. Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2016–18. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF. 2019.
Aboagye RG, Abdul-Aziz S, Asare BYA, Peprah P, Addo IY, Ahinkorah BO. Exposure to interparental violence and justification of intimate partner violence among women in sexual unions in sub-Saharan Africa. Arch Public Health. 2021;79:162. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00684-3.
Seidu AA, Dzantor S, Sambah F, Ahinkorah BO. Ameyaw EK. Participation in household decision making and justification of wife beating: evidence from the 2018 Mali Demographic and Health Survey. Int Health. 2021;0:1–10.
Doku DT, Asante KO. Women’s approval of domestic physical violence against wives: analysis of the Ghana demographic and health survey. BMC Womens Health. 2015;15:120. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-015-0276-0.
Chernet AG, Cherie KT. Prevalence of intimate partner violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia. BMC Women’s Health 2020;20:22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-0892-1.
Inal E, Ahmed F, Erbaydar NP. The factors associated to justify the physical partner violence among married women in Turkey. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2020;34(4):277–85.
Waltermaurer E, Butsashvili M, Avaliani N, et al. An examination of domestic partner violence and its justification in the Republic of Georgia. BMC Women’s Health. 2013;13:44.
Anaba EA, Manu A, Ogum-Alangea D, Modey EJ, Addo-Lartey A, Torpey K. Young people’s attitudes towards wife-beating: Analysis of the Ghana demographic and health survey 2014. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(2): e0245881. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245881.
Biswas RK, Rahman N, Kabir E, Raihan F. Women’s opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(11): e0187884. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187884.
Dickson KS, Ameyaw EK, Darteh EKM. Understanding the endorsement of wife beating in Ghana: evidence of the. Ghana demographic and health survey. BMC Women's Health. 2020;20:25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00897-8.
Rashid M, Kader M, Perera NK, et al. Wife beating: a population-based study in Bangladesh. Violence Gender. 2014;1(4):170–5.
Conroy AA. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi. J Interpers Violence. 2014;29(5):866–88.
Ahinkorah BO, Dickson KS, Seidu AA. Women decision-making capacity and intimate partner violence among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Arch Public Health. 2018;76:5.
Mann JR, Takyi BK. Autonomy, dependency or culture: examining the impact of resource and socio-cultural processes on attitudes towards intimate partner violence in Ghana. Africa J Fam Violence. 2009;24:323–35.
Bazargan-Hejazi S, Medeiros S, Mohammadi R, et al. Patterns of intimate partner violence: a study of female victims in Malawi. J Inj Violence Res. 2013;5(1):38–50.
Hassanzadeh M. Women empowerment: A study of media and its role in empowerment of Afghan’s women. Indian J Sci Technol. 2018;11(23):1–8.
Yount KM, Li Li. Women’s “Justification” of Domestic Violence in Egypt. J Marriage Fam. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00659.x.
Rahman M, Hoque MA, Makinoda S. Intimate partner violence against women: Is women empowerment a reducing factor? A study from a national Bangladeshi sample. J Family Viol. 2011;26(5):411–20.
Odero M, Hatcher AM, Bryant C, Onono M, Romito P, Bukusi EA, et al. Responses to and resources for Intimate Partner Violence: Qualitative findings from women, men, and service providers in rural Kenya. J Interpers Violence. 2014;29(5):783–805.
Ogland EG, Xu X, Bartkowski JP, Ogland CP. Intimate Partner Violence against married women in Uganda. J Fam Violence. 2014;29(8):869–79.